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Compound in Broccoli a Potential Weapon Against Breast Cancer

Posted: May 31, 2010 at 8:16 am


Sulforaphane, an active compound extracted from broccoli, offers hope to breast cancer sufferers as it is capable of killing off cancer stem cells.

According to new research from the US, a compound found in the popular vegetable broccoli is capable of targeting and killing off cancer stem cells.  According to the research, which was published recently in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, the compound sulforaphane was capable of killing off cancer stem cells and prevented new cancerous growths from emerging.

Broccoli vs. cancerous tumors

Collating their data with other earlier studies on the subject, the US researchers noted that sulforaphane was able to reduce the resistance of cancerous tumors to conventional treatment.  Since the compound reduces tumor resistance, a second theory arose: the compound may be the key to solving the problem with relapses, or recurring cancer.

The researchers further noted that people who consumed more broccoli tend to have less risk of breast cancer.  Since the compound is derived naturally from the vegetable, it has very low toxicity and can be utilized by the body easily (high bioavailability).

Bioavailability is an important concept in medical treatments because if a drug has low bioavailability, it becomes less effective and the patient would eventually need to take higher doses of the drug to get the desired results.  To date, sulforaphane has already been marketed as a food supplement.  However, the amount of sulforaphane in supplements is not being regulated.

Broccoli vs. diabetes

It seems that like a few other organic compounds like resveratrol, sulforaphane is enjoying widespread popularity because it provides so many benefits.  In another study published in the medical journal Diabetes, it was found that the same compound may be helpful in reducing the vascular damage associated with long-term diabetes.

As you may know, diabetes causes a lot of problems to diabetics, including damage to blood vessels.  This damage to blood vessels may even cause blindness if the diabetes is not treated and monitored correctly.

Sulforaphane, according to the study in Diabetes, was capable of reducing the damage to body’s blood vessels by activating enzyme production.  The enzyme produced protects the blood vessels from the ravages of diabetes.

The compound also helped the body by helping produce enzymes that disabled free radicals in the body.  In yet another study, the compound offered hope to family lines with histories of cancer.

It appears that the compound was also capable of preventing cells from passing on damaged or corrupted genetic information to the next generation of cells.  In another study (this is the fourth!) sulforaphane was also linked to reducing the chances of aggressive prostate cancer in men by more than forty-five percent.

Sources:
mayoclinic.com
nutraingredients.com

Discuss this post in Frank Mangano’s forum!

Resveratrol: Nature’a Anti-Aging Molecule

Posted: at 8:16 am


Resveratrol, a naturally-occuring compound in wine, may help reduce cardiovascular disease and prolong life, new human study states.

Resveratrol is a naturally-occurring compound found in wines fermented from grapes.   This compound is a polyphenol and has been studied for many decades primarily because of the French Paradox: there is a low incidence of heart disease in France even though the French generally indulge in high-fat diets.

The French also smoke and drink a lot of wine throughout their lives.  One would expect that cardiovascular problems would be common, given the circumstances; however, something is keeping the French heart strong and healthy.  And according to Dr. Renaud, a French doctor from Bordeaux University, it was resveratrol that was to be given the credit.

Blood flow boost

In the United Kingdom, a human study (note – they used live human subjects for the test and not animals) researchers found out that 250 milligrams of resveratrol can help increase the blood flow to the brain, without producing any negative effects to a person’s cognitive capacity.  This fact alone, according to Dr. David Kennedy, signals a renewed interest in resveratrol and how it can affect vascular activity in the brain.

Another study from Harvard University showed that resveratrol was able to prolong the life of yeast cultures.  This study was done back in 2003, which actually helped increase resveratrol’s popularity with the media as a potential “eternal youth” pill.

Other studies showed that this polyphenolic compound was also capable of prolonging the life of other species such as mice and even nematodes.  What’s amazing about this compound is that it produces so many benefits and yet it’s just one type of molecule. It is as if Mother Nature designed resveratrol as a ‘heal-all’ for all living beings.

How much can you safely take?

It’s good to be always cautious and careful with anything that we ingest or consume.  Regular doses of resveratrol should not be given to children (that usually means kids below the age of 12) and pregnant or lactating women.  This is a general caution because there are still no conclusive studies done on the potential effects of this compound.

However, many researchers disagree with the warning about the dose.  According to James Betz, MD, tests show that at 1,000 mg of reseveratrol the polyphenolic compound failed to produce any significant negative effects to the test subjects.  Could it be possible that nature’s heal-all also doesn’t produce any side effects?

We leave this question open for the time being – it is up to medical researchers to prove or disprove.  But what we know now is this: resveratrol has a very big potential in prolonging the life of humans by protecting people’s hearts.  That is the main benefit and it is still the most interesting advantage to people who ingest resveratrol supplements.

Other benefits of resveratrol

This tough molecule does more than just protect the heart:

  1. Resveratrol reduces inflammation in the body, which might benefit a lot of people in the long term because many medical conditions produce inflammation in the skin, joints, muscles and other body tissues.
  2. Resveratrol reduces the incidence of blood clots, which may cause heart attacks, stroke, thrombosis, embolisms, etc.
  3. Resvertarol is a natural anti-oxidant that can rid the body of harmful free radicals.
  4. Resveratrol may also help in controlling cholesterol levels in the body (LDL cholesterol or bad cholesterol is its main target).

Having a hard time with high blood pressure? This polyphenol has been associated with lower blood pressure, too!

Sources:
nutraingredients-usa.com
mayoclinic.com
mayoclinic.com

Discuss this post in Frank Mangano’s forum!

Cut Back on Sodas for a Healthier Heart

Posted: May 29, 2010 at 8:16 am


Cutting back on soda directly improves a person's blood pressure. Over time, the benefits of this practice will also continue to increase.

Today, the average American consumes 28 fl. oz. of sodas and other sugary drinks everyday – an alarming fact considering that new research has discovered the vital link between these sugary drinks and blood pressure.

According to research done by Dr. Liwei Chen from the Louisiana State University, cutting back on your consumption of sugary beverages has a direct impact on your blood pressure.

The 3-point difference

In the randomized study involving 810 adult Americans (aged twenty five to seventy nine), Dr. Chen observed that halving the usual consumption of sodas produced a 3-point reduction in blood pressure. What does this mean?  Well, a 3-point reduction in blood pressure also reduced the incidence of a heart attack by a hefty eight percent.

Mortality associated with cardiovascular incidents was also reduced by five percent.  During the study, the 810 respondents were given beverages that had been sweetened with corn syrup – the most common sweetener used in the beverage and food industries today.

According to Dr. Chen, if a person were to gradually reduce his or her soda consumption over a long period of time, then the benefits to a person’s heart is also for the long term.  And that’s not all, a person who reduces his consumption of soda also protects himself more efficiently from stroke – one the greatest silent killers in medical history.

Soda & blood pressure?

But many people are still wondering: what does soda consumption really have to do with blood pressure?  There are two theories supporting the move to reduce the intake of sodas and sugary drinks: the sodium theory and the uric acid theory.

You see, many commercial beverages are loaded with sodium, the same stuff that we use to season food. Sodium has the capacity to directly raise a person’s blood pressure.

Also, the sweetener used for these beverages also contributes to the increase of a person’s uric acid, which is also directly associated with high blood pressure.  In addition to high blood pressure, increased uric acid can also contribute to a higher probability of developing gouty arthritis – a very painful form of arthritis.

Tips for lowering your blood pressure

1. Avoid eating too much fast food and processed food – foodstuffs developed by most food sectors are loaded with at least 40% more sodium than what is considered safe by the US FDA.

2.If you can, use spice substitutes when cooking. Avoid using too much salt when cooking.  Your blood pressure can progressively increase through time.

3. You don’t have to spend a cent to exercise – start getting fit today.  Five minutes of brisk walking, done everyday, can do wonders for your blood pressure.

4. Cut down on smoking – cigarettes and cigars have been shown to raise blood pressure.  If you stop smoking for just 1 to 2 hours, your blood pressure begins to go down.

References:
webmd.com
disease/article32650.html
rd.com
rd.com

Love Pistachios? Your Heart Does, Too!

Posted: at 8:16 am


Pistachios are a great way to start the day – because it protects the heart and lowers bad cholesterol.

Pistachios are well-loved nuts, not just in the United States but around the globe. We have even more reasons to love this health nut: researchers from Pennsylvania State University  concluded that pistachios are ideal for controlling cholesterol levels because it’s natural packed with nutrients and good fats which helps the cardiovascular system work more efficiently.

The study involved 28 respondents (adult males and females) who were given pistachios during the research period. The nuts had a marked effect on the LDL or bad cholesterol level of the test respondents.

Other benefits of pistachios

Pistachios are packed with lutein and other organic compounds that serve as anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants reduce cell damage and further protects cells from the ravages of free radicals.

Coupled with the right diet and exercise, a heart-healthy meal plan consisting of pistachios, vegetables and lean meat can significantly contribute to decreasing cardiovascular problems and even cancer. It’s all about synergy – the components of a fitness plan must be synergistic with each other to work well.

In addition to being loaded with anti-oxidants, pistachio nuts are also great sources of vitamins and minerals. Minerals like iron, which are present in pistachios, are heart protectors. In the long term, eating foods similar to pistachios will enhance the protective effect of a heart-healthy diet.

Tips for lowering LDL cholesterol

1. As much as possible, stick to lean, white meats and avoid red meats. Red meats are packed with bad cholesterol (LDL) and only make things worse.

2. Moderate consumption of red wine (and other wines with resveratrol) may reduce LDL and protect your heart, too. Note that a small quantity of wine, drank regularly every week is sufficient. Do not overdo alcohol consumption.

3. Eat foods high in fiber like fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes

4.Cold water fishes packed with omega-3 fatty acids are also ideal in combating high cholesterol levels.

5. 42.5 grams of healthy nuts like pistachios and even walnuts can help lower your cholesterol over the long term.

Summary: Pistachios are a great way to start the day – because it protects the heart and lowers bad cholesterol.

Sources:
webmd.com
mayoclinic.com
cholesterol.about.com

Beating Cancer Back With Exercise

Posted: at 8:16 am


Exercise doesn't just benefit people by reducing weight and making muscles stronger – it can also help cancer patients by reducing the side effects of cancer treatment.

According to Eleanor Walker, a division director from the Henry Ford Hospital, exercise may well be the missing ingredient in cancer care for the longest time.

According to Dr. Walker, introducing exercise alongside the usual cancer care offered to patients offers both physical and psychological advantages.  It appears that exercise also reduces the side effects commonly associated with cancer treatment.

ExCITE-ing

In addition to reducing the side effects of the various treatments for cancer, exercise is also a great energizer and is also capable of combating nausea – an all too common problem for cancer patients undergoing treatment.  The testing was done using an program called ExCITE, which was designed by researchers from the Cancer Center at the Henry Ford Hospital.

The patients were given the usual tests and specific diets and exercise programs were recommended to them, based on the initial test results.  One of the respondents, a breast cancer patient, reported that the usual side effects of treatment like nausea and even vomiting were eliminated after she joined the ExCITE program.

According to the patient, Cheryl Fallen, the ExCITE program is a very holistic approach to mitigating problems associated with cancer treatment because the exercise routines are able to strengthen the immune system and also improves the blood circulation of the patients.  Fallen also views the program as a positive aid for cancer patients; and it makes her feel good, too.

…And even more reasons to exercise

1. Exercise lowers your blood sugar levels, energizes you and improves your physical and psychological condition.  It’s all a matter of investing time and energy into it; the rewards of finally becoming physically fit are endless.

2. Exercises increases the capacity of cells to utilize sugar.  During exercise, the muscles in the body are forced to pump out energy and utilize the raw substrate used for work – glucose.  If you exercise on a daily basis, the cells in the body use sugar more efficiently, effectively lowering insulin resistance.

3. Exercising is a great way to deal with stress. Stress isn’t just a frame of mind. It’s the body’s reaction to worries and anxieties. Resting is not the best solution to stress- exercise is.  The more you exercise, the more the body heals and recovers from the physical and mental burdens of stress.  With less stress, you will be able to perform better at work or school and you will instantly feel better. After a workout (like walking or running), the body releases endorphins, the body’s natural painkillers. Endorphins allow the body to cool down and relax – naturally.

Sources
rd.com
exercise.about.com
sciencedaily.com

Alzheimer’s: Forestalling the Darkness with New Approaches (preview)

Posted: May 28, 2010 at 8:15 am


In his magical-realist masterpiece One Hundred Years of Solitude , Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez takes the reader to the mythical jungle village of Macondo, where, in one oft-recounted scene, residents suffer from a disease that causes them to lose all memory. The malady erases “the name and notion of things and finally the identity of people.” The symptoms persist until a traveling gypsy turns up with a drink “of a gentle color” that returns them to health.

In a 21st-century parallel to the townspeople of Macondo, a few hundred residents from Medellín, Colombia, and nearby coffee-growing areas may get a chance to assist in the search for something akin to a real-life version of the gypsy’s concoction. Medellín and its environs are home to the world’s largest contingent of individuals with a hereditary form of Alzheimer’s disease. Members of 25 extended families, with 5,000 members, develop early-onset Alzheimer’s, usually before the age of 50, if they harbor an aberrant version of a particular gene.

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Alzheimer - Macondo - One Hundred Years of Solitude - Health - Conditions and Diseases

International Stem Cell Corporation Moves International Cornea Development Program Forward

Posted: May 26, 2010 at 8:15 am


International Stem Cell Corporation (OTCBB:ISCO), http://www.intlstemcell.com, today announced significant progress on its international development strategy for stem cell-derived human corneal tissue. Such tissue can potentially be used to replace cadaver-derived corneas in treatment of severe corneal vision impairment and to eliminate the need to use live animals in safety testing of drugs, chemicals and consumer products.

During a recent trip to Asia and Europe, an ISCO senior management team identified and interacted with a group of integrated eye hospitals and ophthalmology research institutions with world-class laboratory facilities, along with potential sources of research funding. One of these is Sankara Nethralaya (http://www.sankaranethralaya.org), one of India's leading not-for-profit clinical and research organizations dedicated to treatment of eye diseases.

Research during the past ten to fifteen years has demonstrated stem cell differentiation into a variety of human cell types. Rarely has it been possible to produce such integrated, functional human tissue, in this case, tissue that has characteristics compatible with human cornea in structure and function. This tissue technology may offer a first-in-class opportunity for high-quality, cost-efficient transplantation tissue for the 10 million people world-wide suffering from corneal vision impairment, particularly in Asia and Europe. It may also provide a much needed alternative to the use of live and extracted animal eyes in the $500+M market for safety testing of drugs, chemicals and consumer products.

During the coming months, ISCO expects to formalize relationships with a number of entities such as Sankara Nethralaya to provide ISCO's cornea development program with the scientific, facility and financial resources needed to advance the technology as rapidly as possible to clinical application. The ultimate goal is not only to address the clear unmet medical and safety testing needs, but also to be among the first pluripotent stem cell applications to achieve widespread commercialization.

Dr. Sengamedu Srinivasa Badrinath, President and Chairman Emeritus of Sankara Nethralaya says: 'At Sankara Nethralaya, we see 1,600 eye patients and do over 100 eye surgeries a day. We employ sixty scientists and clinicians dedicated to the development and application of new state-of-the-art ophthalmic technologies. My senior team at Sankara Nethralaya and I look forward to helping ISCO advance its cornea technology that has potential to significantly reduce the severe quantitative and qualitative limitations in corneal donor tissue across the world today.'

Brian Lundstrom, ISCO's President, continues: 'The addition of Sankara Nethralaya to our international collaborative network will contribute substantial scientific and clinical ophthalmology expertise and resources and complement the instrumentation alliance with The Automation Partnership and the safety testing collaboration with Absorptions Systems. The next step is to organize an experienced therapeutic development team to establish the optimal development path with relevant regulatory authorities and create data needed to advance ISCO's stem cell-derived corneal tissue into clinical trials.'

ABOUT INTERNATIONAL STEM CELL CORPORATION (ISCO.OB):
International Stem Cell Corporation is a California-based biotechnology company focused on therapeutic and research products. ISCO's core technology, parthenogenesis, results in creation of pluripotent human parthenogenetic stem cells (hpSCs) from unfertilized oocytes (eggs). hpSCs avoid ethical issues associated with the use or destruction of viable human embryos. ISCO scientists have created the first parthenogenic, homozygous stem cell line that can be a source of therapeutic cells with minimal immune rejection after transplantation into hundreds of millions of individuals of differing sexes, ages and racial groups. This offers the potential to create the first true stem cell bank, UniStemCell™, while avoiding the ethical issue of using fertilized eggs. ISCO also produces and markets specialized cells and growth media for therapeutic research worldwide through its subsidiary Lifeline Cell Technology. More information is available at ISCO's website,
http://www.internationalstemcell.com.

To subscribe to receive ongoing corporate communications please click on the following link: http://www.b2i.us/irpass.asp?BzID=1468&to=ea&s=0.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements pertaining to anticipated technological developments and therapeutic applications, and other opportunities for the company and its subsidiary, along with other statements about the future expectations, beliefs, goals, plans, or prospects expressed by management constitute forward-looking statements. Any statements that are not historical fact (including, but not limited to statements that contain words such as "will," "should," "believes," "plans," "anticipates," "expects," "estimates,") should also be considered to be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, risks inherent in the development and/or commercialization of potential products, uncertainty in the results of clinical trials or regulatory approvals, need and ability to obtain future capital, application of capital resources among competing uses, and maintenance of intellectual property rights. Actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements and as such should be evaluated together with the many uncertainties that affect the company's business, particularly those mentioned in the cautionary statements found in the company's Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The company disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

Key Words: Stem Cells, Biotechnology, Parthenogenesis

International Stem Cell Corporation
Kenneth C. Aldrich, Chairman
760-940-6383
kaldrich@intlstemcell.com
Or
Brian Lundstrom, President
760-640-6383
bl@intlstemcell.com

Longevity Meme Newsletter, May 24 2010

Posted: May 24, 2010 at 8:15 am


LONGEVITY MEME NEWSLETTER
May 24 2010

The Longevity Meme Newsletter is a weekly email containing news, opinions, and happenings for people interested in aging science and engineered longevity: making use of diet, lifestyle choices, technology, and proven medical advances to live healthy, longer lives. This newsletter is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. In short, this means that you are encouraged to republish and rewrite it in any way you see fit, the only requirements being that you provide attribution and a link to the Longevity Meme.

To subscribe or unsubscribe from the Longevity Meme Newsletter, please visit http://www.longevitymeme.org/newsletter/

______________________________

CONTENTS

- Is Aging a Disease?
- Applying Reliability Theory to Aging
- Sarcopenia Caused by Blood Vessel Aging?
- Discussion
- Latest Healthy Life Extension Headlines

IS AGING A DISEASE?

This is an often debated question amongst researchers and advocates, but it isn't really about words and definitions - this has far more to do with research fundraising and the consequences of regulation:

http://www.fightaging.org/archives/2010/05/talking-point-is-aging-a-disease.php

"At the moment, drug companies and scientists keen to develop their research on aging into tangible results are hampered by regulators in the United States and Europe who will license medicines only for specific diseases, not for something as general as aging. ... Because aging is not viewed as a disease, the whole process of bringing drugs to market can't be applied to drugs that treat aging. This creates a disincentive to pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs to treat it. ... Unelected officials of organizations like the FDA in the United States cause untold harm to progress in medical science by (a) placing huge and unnecessary burdens upon research and development, and (b) forbidding outright commercial application for any purpose or disease that is not in their list. It can take a decade - and millions of dollars in the formalized bribery known as lobbying - for a new discovery, new classification, or new form of therapy to be recognized by regulators. Or even longer, as is the case for aging."

Thus many promising lines of technology are developed very slowly, or not at all. Those that do gain traction are sidelined into commercial development as treatments for specific late-stage diseases of aging - typically far from their most optimal usage. As is true of everything touched by bureaucrats, this situation is a debacle and a vast waste.

APPLYING RELIABILITY THEORY TO AGING

Reliability theory is a way of making predictions on failure modes and mean time to failure for complex systems consisting of many redundant parts. It has seen extensive use in the electronics industry, for example, though its roots are far older than that. There is a growing interest in applying reliability theory to considering aging and longevity:

http://www.fightaging.org/archives/2010/05/applying-reliability-theory-to-aging.php

"Biological organisms can be considered as reliability-engineered, robust systems and applying reliability theory to their basic non-aging components, proteins, could provide insight into the aging mechanism. Reliability theory suggests that aging is an obligatory trade-off in a fault-tolerant system such as the cell which is constructed based on redundancy design. Aging is the inevitable redundancy loss of functional system components, that is proteins, over time. In our study we investigated mouse brain development, adulthood and aging from embryonic day 10 to 100 weeks. We determined redundancy loss of different protein categories with age using reliability theory. We observed a near-linear decrease of protein redundancy during aging."

If you visit the SENS Foundation science pages, you'll see that many of the root causes of aging involve accumulating damage to the protein building blocks used by our cells and by the machinery within our cells:

http://www.sens.org/sens-research/research-themes

SARCOPENIA CAUSED BY BLOOD VESSEL AGING?

Sarcopenia is the characteristic loss of muscle mass and strength with advancing age, and there is a healthy debate in the gerontology community over its root causes. Here, researchers put forward a fairly convincing demonstration in support of their theory that sarcopenia results from age-related declines in blood vessel function:

http://www.fightaging.org/archives/2010/05/sarcopenia-as-a-consequence-of-failing-blood-vessel-function.php

"Normally, [the tiny blood vessels in muscle] are closed, but when a young person eats a meal and insulin is released into the bloodstream, they open wide to allow nutrients to reach muscle cells. In elderly people, however, insulin has no such 'vasodilating' effect. ... We found that by blocking vasodilation, we reproduced in young people the entire response that we see in older persons - a blunting of muscle protein response and a lack of net muscle growth. In other words, from a muscle standpoint, we made young people look 50 years older."

Blood vessels are an important form of biological infrastructure in our bodies: not just tubes, but in fact complex reactive machinery. They become progressively more damaged by age, unable to adjust as they should, and this causes harm to many of our bodily systems.

DISCUSSION

The highlights and headlines from the past week follow below. If you have comments for us, please do send e-mail to newsletter@longevitymeme.org

Remember - if you like this newsletter, the chances are that your friends will find it useful too. Forward it on, or post a copy to your favorite online communities. Encourage the people you know to pitch in and make a difference to the future of health and longevity!

Reason
reason@longevitymeme.org

______________________________

LATEST HEALTHY LIFE EXTENSION HEADLINES

AFFIBODIES AND AGGREGATES (May 21 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4735
From the SENS Foundation: "Aggregates of beta-amyloid (Abeta) and other malformed proteins accumulate in brain aging and neurodegenerative disease, leading progressively to neuronal dysfunction and/or loss. The regenerative engineering solution to these insults is therapeutic clearance of aggregates, extracellular (such as Abeta plaques) and intracellular (such as soluble, oligomeric Abeta). Immunotherapeutic Abeta clearance from the brain is a very active field of Alzheimer's research, with at least seven passive, and several second-generation active, Abeta vaccines currently in human clinical trials ... One challenge to optimal vaccine design is matching the specificity of antibodies the range of Abeta aggregates that form in vivo ... agents that sequester one Abeta species may leave other species intact, and in some cases a shift in assembly dynamics can actually promote the formation of one species while clearing or reducing the formation of others ... Although in very early in vivo testing, a new approach has emerged that may offer that promise. This is the use of an Abeta-targeting affibody, i.e., a novel non-immunoglobulin binding protein generated through combinatorial protein engineering."

ANOTHER STUDY LINKING FAT AND DEMENTIA RISK (May 21 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4734
Via EurekAlert!: "excess abdominal fat places otherwise healthy, middle-aged people at risk for dementia later in life. ... [The study] included 733 community participants who had a mean age of 60 years with roughly 70% of the study group comprised of women. Researchers examined the association between Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, CT-based measures of abdominal fat, with MRI measures of total brain volume (TCBV), temporal horn volume (THV), white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and brain infarcts in the middle-aged participants. ... Our results confirm the inverse association of increasing BMI with lower brain volumes in older adults and with younger, middle-aged adults and extends the findings to a much larger study sample. ... Prior studies were conducted in cohorts with less than 300 participants and the current study includes over 700 individuals. ... More importantly our data suggests a stronger connection between central obesity, particularly the visceral fat component of abdominal obesity, and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease ... the association between VAT and TCBV was most robust and was also independent of BMI and insulin resistance. Researchers did not observe a statistically significant correlation between CT-based abdominal fat measures and THV, WMHV or BI."

THE COST OF EXCESS FAT TISSUE (May 20 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4733
Another paper looks at some of the consequences of becoming obese. In a more fair and productive world, medical costs would be an individual responsibility rather than being socialized as they are at present: "The prevalence of adult obesity has increased in recent decades. It is important to predict the long-term effect of body weight, and changes in body weight, in middle age on longevity and Medicare costs in older ages. ... We predicted longevity and lifetime Medicare costs via simulation for 45-year-old persons by body weight in 1973 and changes in body weight between 1973 and 1983. ... Obese 45-year-olds had a smaller chance of surviving to age 65 and, if they did, incurred significantly higher average lifetime Medicare costs than normal-weight 45-year-olds ($163,000 compared with $117,000). Those who remained obese between ages 45 and 55 in 1973 to 1983 incurred significantly higher lifetime Medicare costs than those who maintained normal weight. ... Chronic obesity in middle age increases lifetime Medicare costs relative to those who remained normal weight. As the survival of obese persons improves, it is possible that Medicare costs may rise substantially in the future to meet the health care needs of today's obese middle-aged population."

TRANSFORMING BRAIN CELLS (May 20 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4732
From the Technology Review: "Support cells in the brain called astroglia can be turned into functioning neurons. ... Researchers found that they could transform the cells into two different classes of neurons, and that the neurons could form connections with one another in a dish. Although the research is at an early stage, the finding suggests that scientists could someday recruit existing cells in the brain to repair the brain and spinal cord after a stroke, injury, or neurodegenerative disease. ... The addition of one specific gene generated excitatory neurons, which promote activity in other cells. By adding a different gene, they generated inhibitory neurons, which dampen cell activity. In principle, [you] could generate other types of neurons if you choose the appropriate factors ... The study adds to growing evidence that certain cell types can be transformed directly into other cell types without first being converted into stem cells. ... one of the next challenges is to determine whether these reprogrammed neurons can survive and function in a living brain. Fortunately, the brain seems to have a ready source of astroglia. When the brain is injured, these cells proliferate, similar to the way the skin repairs itself after a wound. The researchers found they could also derive neurons from injury-induced astroglia taken from the brains of adult mice."

H+ MAGAZINE ON SWITCHING MEMORY BACK ON (May 19 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4731
From h+ Magazine: "A new study [sheds] some light on how 'memory disturbances' in an aging mouse brain are associated with altered 'hippocampal chromatin plasticity' - the combination of DNA, histones, and other proteins that make up the chromosomes associated with the hippocampus. Specifically, the study describes an acetyl genetic switch that produces memory impairment in aging 16-month-old mice. Because the acetyl wasn't present in young 3-month-old mice, the study concludes that it acts as a switch for a cluster of learning and memory genes. ... when young mice are learning, an acetyl group binds to a particular point on the histone protein. The cluster of learning and memory genes on the surrounding DNA ends up close to the acetyl group. This acetyl group was missing in the older mice that had been given the same tasks. By injecting an enzyme known to encourage acetyl groups to bind to any kind of histone molecule, [researchers] flipped the acetyl genetic switch to the 'on' position in the older mice and their learning and memory performance became similar to that of 3-month-old mice. ... [Researchers hope] that the study of hippocampal chromatin plasticity and gene regulation in mice will help them to identify therapeutic strategies to encourage neuroplasticity (the formation of new neural networks in the brain), to improve learning behavior, and to recover seemingly lost long-term memories in human patients."

MEMORY AND LONGEVITY TREATMENTS (May 19 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4730
Via EurekAlert!: "Two methods of extending life span have very different effects on memory performance and decline with age. ... While the nematode C. elegans is already well known for its utility in longevity research, previously it was not known how the memory of C. elegans compares with that of other animals, or whether longevity treatments could improve learning and memory. To answer these questions, [researchers] designed new tests of learning and memory in C. elegans, then used these tests to identify the necessary components of learning, short-term memory, and long-term memory. They found that the molecules required for learning and memory appear to be conserved from C. elegans to mammals, suggesting that the basic mechanisms underlying learning and memory are ancient. The authors also determined how each of the behaviors declines with age, and tested the effects of two known regulators of longevity - dietary restriction and reduced Insulin/IGF-1 signaling - on these declines. Surprisingly, very different effects on memory were achieved with the two longevity treatments: dietary restriction impaired memory in early adulthood but maintained memory with age, while reduced Insulin/IGF-1 signaling improved early adult memory performance but failed to preserve it with age. These results suggest not only that longevity treatments could help preserve cognitive function with age, but also that different longevity treatments might have very different effects on such declines."

STEM CELL INDUCED REGENERATION IN THE LUNG (May 18 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4729
Researchers here demonstrate that comparatively simple stem cell transplants may be effective in regenerating lung injuries: "Human stem cells administered intravenously can restore alveolar epithelial tissue to a normal function in a novel ex vivo perfused human lung after E. coli endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) ... ALI is a common cause of respiratory failure in the intensive care units, often leading to death. It can be caused by both direct injury such as aspiration and pneumonia, and indirect injury such as sepsis and from trauma. ... Yearly, ALI affects approximately 200,000 patients in the US and has a 40 percent mortality rate despite extensive investigations into its causes and pathophysiology. Innovative therapies are desperately needed. ... we found that intravenous infusion of [stem cells] preferentially homed to the injured areas of the lung, which means that the cells find their way from the bloodstream to the sites in the lung of injury. ... In addition to having restored function of alveolar epithelial cells, lungs treated with [stem cells] showed a reduction in inflammatory [cytokine] levels suggesting a favorable shift away from a proinflammatory environment in the injured alveolus."

AN INTERVIEW WITH A TISSUE ENGINEER (May 18 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4728
From the Guardian: "The human body has tremendous capacity to repair itself after disease or injury. Skin will grow over wounds, while cells in our blood supply are constantly being manufactured in our bone marrow. But there is a limit to the body's ability to replace lost tissue. Cartilage cells are notoriously poor at regrowing after injury, for example. As a result, accidents and illnesses - including cancers - often leave individuals with disfiguring wounds or life-threatening damage to tissue. The aim of Molly Stevens, a nanoscience researcher at Imperial College, London, and founder of the biotech firm Reprogen, is a simple but ambitious one. Working with a team of chemists, cell biologists, surgeons, material scientists and engineers, she is developing techniques that will help the body repair itself when it suffers damage. This is the science of regenerative medicine. ... One approach that we have had considerable success with involves taking quite straightforward materials including simple polymers and using them to boost bone growth in a person. We made them into gels that we could inject into bones. The key to this technique lies with the fact that our bones are covered in a layer of stem cells. We inject our material under that layer and that wakes up those stem cells. They start to multiply and produce lots of new bone."

ANOTHER STEP FORWARD FOR TOOTH REGENERATION (May 17 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4727
Researchers have regrown teeth in rats by manipulating existing stem cells: "a new technique [can] orchestrate the body's stem cells to migrate to three-dimensional scaffold that is infused with growth factor. This can yield an anatomically correct tooth in as soon as nine weeks once implanted in the mouth. ... These findings represent the first report of regeneration of anatomically shaped tooth-like structures in vivo, and by cell homing without cell delivery. ... By homing stem cells to a scaffold made of natural materials and integrated in surrounding tissue, there is no need to use harvested stem cell lines, or create a an environment outside of the body (e.g., a Petri dish) where the tooth is grown and then implanted once it has matured. The tooth instead can be grown 'orthotopically,' or in the socket where the tooth will integrate with surrounding tissue in ways that are impossible with hard metals or other materials. ... A key consideration in tooth regeneration is finding a cost-effective approach that can translate into therapies for patients who cannot afford or who aren't good candidates for dental implants. Cell-homing-based tooth regeneration may provide a tangible pathway toward clinical translation."

MORE DATA TO PONDER ON GENDER LONGEVITY DIFFERENCES (May 17 2010)
http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/vnl.cfm?id=4726
From the Max Planck Institute: "Marriage is more beneficial for men than for women - at least for those who want a long life. Previous studies have shown that men with younger wives live longer. While it had long been assumed that women with younger husbands also live longer, [a new study] has shown that this is not the case. Instead, the greater the age difference from the husband, the lower the wife's life expectancy. This is the case irrespective of whether the woman is younger or older than her spouse. ... The mortality risk of a husband who is seven to nine years older than his wife is reduced by eleven percent compared to couples where both partners are the same age. Conversely, a man dies earlier when he is younger than his spouse. For years, researchers have thought that this data holds true for both sexes. They assumed an effect called 'health selection' was in play; those who select younger partners are able to do so because they are healthier and thus already have a higher life expectancy. ... These theories now have to be reconsidered. It appears that the reasons for mortality differences due to the age gap of the spouses remain unclear."

______________________________

If you have comments for us, please do send email to newsletter@longevitymeme.org.

12th National Conference: Parkinson’s 2010: Recent clinical advances in the management of Parkinson’s (Jun 23, 2010, London, United Kingdom, Europe)

Posted: May 23, 2010 at 8:17 am


Cliquez pour écouter ce texte The British Journal of Hospital Medicine in conjunction with the Parkinson's Disease Society is delighted to announce its 12th National Parkinson's Conference. Parkinson's 2010 is aimed at all health and social care professionals involved in the clinical management of people with Parkinson's. It will be an educational event providing a state-of-the art update on the current clinical developments taking place in the field.
Participants will benefit from receiving:

  • A comprehensive overview of the current and future pharmacotherapies in use.
  • A greater understanding of the management of non- motor symptoms including sleep disorders, impulse control disorders, visual dysfunction and Parkinson's dementia.
  • A raised awareness of the indications for deep brain stimulation.
  • An insight into end of life care for people with Parkinson's.
  • Information from leading experts in the field on the optimal management strategies in use today. We would be delighted if you could join us for what promises to be an exciting and informative day.
  • Please do book early to be sure of your place.
  • Affibodies and Aggregates

    Posted: May 22, 2010 at 8:16 am


    From the SENS Foundation: "Aggregates of beta-amyloid (Abeta) and other malformed proteins accumulate in brain aging and neurodegenerative disease, leading progressively to neuronal dysfunction and/or loss. The regenerative engineering solution to these insults is therapeutic clearance of aggregates, extracellular (such as Abeta plaques) and intracellular (such as soluble, oligomeric Abeta). Immunotherapeutic Abeta clearance from the brain is a very active field of Alzheimer's research, with at least seven passive, and several second-generation active, Abeta vaccines currently in human clinical trials ... One challenge to optimal vaccine design is matching the specificity of antibodies the range of Abeta aggregates that form in vivo ... agents that sequester one Abeta species may leave other species intact, and in some cases a shift in assembly dynamics can actually promote the formation of one species while clearing or reducing the formation of others ... Although in very early in vivo testing, a new approach has emerged that may offer that promise. This is the use of an Abeta-targeting affibody, i.e., a novel non-immunoglobulin binding protein generated through combinatorial protein engineering."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://www.sens.org/node/785

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

    Another Study Linking Fat and Dementia Risk

    Posted: at 8:16 am


    Via EurekAlert!: "excess abdominal fat places otherwise healthy, middle-aged people at risk for dementia later in life. ... [The study] included 733 community participants who had a mean age of 60 years with roughly 70% of the study group comprised of women. Researchers examined the association between Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, CT-based measures of abdominal fat, with MRI measures of total brain volume (TCBV), temporal horn volume (THV), white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and brain infarcts in the middle-aged participants. ... Our results confirm the inverse association of increasing BMI with lower brain volumes in older adults and with younger, middle-aged adults and extends the findings to a much larger study sample. ... Prior studies were conducted in cohorts with less than 300 participants and the current study includes over 700 individuals. ... More importantly our data suggests a stronger connection between central obesity, particularly the visceral fat component of abdominal obesity, and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease ... the association between VAT and TCBV was most robust and was also independent of BMI and insulin resistance. Researchers did not observe a statistically significant correlation between CT-based abdominal fat measures and THV, WMHV or BI."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-05/w-afa051910.php

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

    Biotech tax credit appears perfectly designed for cell therapy companies to recoup research dollars spent in 2009-10

    Posted: at 5:04 am


    Stewart Lyman of Lyman BioPharma Consulting posted a great article in today's Xconomy summarizing some key points and links to more information about the rules governing the Therapeutic Discovery Project Credit which have now been released by the US Treasury Department. Today, a detailed fact sheet was released about the tax credit program and it seems almost perfectly designed for most cell therapy companies.

    Lyman points out a few important details about the application schedule including:

    1. The Formal IRS applications (Form 8942) will not be available until June 21st or thereabouts.

    2. The application period opens on June 21 and ends on July 21. The postmark on the application is deemed to be the date of delivery. Preliminary review of the applications is to be completed by Sept. 30; this is to ensure that applicants are eligible taxpayers and that their applications are complete. Applicants will receive determinations as to whether or not they qualify for credits and/or grants, and how much they will receive, by Oct. 29.

    By way of a little more background, the following is excerpted from a March Forbes.com article by Dean Zerbe:

    What does the credit cover?

    The credit/grant covers research in tax years beginning in 2009 and 2010. The taxpayer is provided a 50% credit/grant for qualified investments in "qualifying therapeutic discovery projects." What expenses count as qualified investments? The aggregate amount of costs paid or incurred in the taxable year for expenses necessary for and directly related to the conduct of a qualifying discovery project. What doesn't count? The pay of employees covered by 162(m)(3) of the tax code--think CEOs--doesn't count. Other excluded items: interest expenses; facility maintenance expenses (e.g. mortgage or rent payments, insurance, utility and maintenance and costs of employment of maintenance personnel); and certain indirect costs (basically general and administrative costs) as defined in the Treasury Regulations at 1.263A-1(e)(4).

    What is a qualifying therapeutic discovery project?

    According to the legislation, it's a project designed to do one of three things:

    --Treat or prevent diseases or conditions by conducting pre-clinical activities, clinical trials and clinical studies, or carrying out research protocols for the purpose of securing federal government approval by the FDA.

    --Diagnose diseases or conditions or to determine molecular factors related to diseases or conditions by developing molecular diagnostics to guide therapeutic decisions.

    --Develop a product, process or technology to further the delivery or administration of therapeutics.

    Finally, to qualify, a venture may not have more than 250 employees in all businesses of the taxpayer--meaning a small biotech project at a big company wouldn't qualify.

    Which biotech companies might benefit?

    Those that are investing significant resources in pre-clinical or clinical studies, which may take years to come to fruition to ultimately satisfy FDA requirements, could now recoup a significant portion of their expenses. Additionally, biotech start-ups focusing on the development of diagnostic assays or applications to advance therapeutics and treatments can also benefit. Finally, companies currently engaged in basic or applied research which may ultimately contribute to curing caner within the next 30 years may also be excellent candidates. Along these lines, companies studying signal transduction pathways, gene therapy and stem cell research seem like prime candidates.

    The Cell Therapy Group will be collecting more information about the tax credit and service providers who might be recommended to assist in the application if needed. Contact CTG for more details or watch here for more information.

    http://www.celltherapyblog.com hosted by http://www.celltherapygroup.com

    The Cost of Excess Fat Tissue

    Posted: May 21, 2010 at 8:17 am


    Another paper looks at some of the consequences of becoming obese. In a more fair and productive world, medical costs would be an individual responsibility rather than being socialized as they are at present: "The prevalence of adult obesity has increased in recent decades. It is important to predict the long-term effect of body weight, and changes in body weight, in middle age on longevity and Medicare costs in older ages. ... We predicted longevity and lifetime Medicare costs via simulation for 45-year-old persons by body weight in 1973 and changes in body weight between 1973 and 1983. ... Obese 45-year-olds had a smaller chance of surviving to age 65 and, if they did, incurred significantly higher average lifetime Medicare costs than normal-weight 45-year-olds ($163,000 compared with $117,000). Those who remained obese between ages 45 and 55 in 1973 to 1983 incurred significantly higher lifetime Medicare costs than those who maintained normal weight. ... Chronic obesity in middle age increases lifetime Medicare costs relative to those who remained normal weight. As the survival of obese persons improves, it is possible that Medicare costs may rise substantially in the future to meet the health care needs of today's obese middle-aged population."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://pmid.us/20473195

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

    Transforming Brain Cells

    Posted: at 8:16 am


    From the Technology Review: "Support cells in the brain called astroglia can be turned into functioning neurons. ... Researchers found that they could transform the cells into two different classes of neurons, and that the neurons could form connections with one another in a dish. Although the research is at an early stage, the finding suggests that scientists could someday recruit existing cells in the brain to repair the brain and spinal cord after a stroke, injury, or neurodegenerative disease. ... The addition of one specific gene generated excitatory neurons, which promote activity in other cells. By adding a different gene, they generated inhibitory neurons, which dampen cell activity. In principle, [you] could generate other types of neurons if you choose the appropriate factors ... The study adds to growing evidence that certain cell types can be transformed directly into other cell types without first being converted into stem cells. ... one of the next challenges is to determine whether these reprogrammed neurons can survive and function in a living brain. Fortunately, the brain seems to have a ready source of astroglia. When the brain is injured, these cells proliferate, similar to the way the skin repairs itself after a wound. The researchers found they could also derive neurons from injury-induced astroglia taken from the brains of adult mice."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/25353/

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

    An evolving concept of CSC in tumor biology

    Posted: at 8:16 am


    An evolving concept of cancer stem cells in tumor biology: a lecture (34:38 min) by Jeremy N Rich. Webcast of the initial presentation at an Educational Session on Cancer Stem Cells and Treatment Resistance, AACR 101st Annual Meeting, April 17, 2010. [FriendFeed entry].

    Comment: Dr. Rich's research has a primary emphasis on Glioma Cancer Stem Cell and Brain Tumors. An example of a recent publication: Integrin Alpha 6 Regulates Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Justin D Lathia and 10 co-authors, including Jeremy N Rich, Cell Stem Cell 2010(May 7); 6(5): 421-32. [PubMed citation][FriendFeed entry].

    h+ Magazine on Switching Memory Back On

    Posted: May 20, 2010 at 8:16 am


    From h+ Magazine: "A new study [sheds] some light on how 'memory disturbances' in an aging mouse brain are associated with altered 'hippocampal chromatin plasticity' - the combination of DNA, histones, and other proteins that make up the chromosomes associated with the hippocampus. Specifically, the study describes an acetyl genetic switch that produces memory impairment in aging 16-month-old mice. Because the acetyl wasn't present in young 3-month-old mice, the study concludes that it acts as a switch for a cluster of learning and memory genes. ... when young mice are learning, an acetyl group binds to a particular point on the histone protein. The cluster of learning and memory genes on the surrounding DNA ends up close to the acetyl group. This acetyl group was missing in the older mice that had been given the same tasks. By injecting an enzyme known to encourage acetyl groups to bind to any kind of histone molecule, [researchers] flipped the acetyl genetic switch to the 'on' position in the older mice and their learning and memory performance became similar to that of 3-month-old mice. ... [Researchers hope] that the study of hippocampal chromatin plasticity and gene regulation in mice will help them to identify therapeutic strategies to encourage neuroplasticity (the formation of new neural networks in the brain), to improve learning behavior, and to recover seemingly lost long-term memories in human patients."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://www.hplusmagazine.com/articles/neuro/switch-memory

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

    Memory and Longevity Treatments

    Posted: at 8:16 am


    Via EurekAlert!: "Two methods of extending life span have very different effects on memory performance and decline with age. ... While the nematode C. elegans is already well known for its utility in longevity research, previously it was not known how the memory of C. elegans compares with that of other animals, or whether longevity treatments could improve learning and memory. To answer these questions, [researchers] designed new tests of learning and memory in C. elegans, then used these tests to identify the necessary components of learning, short-term memory, and long-term memory. They found that the molecules required for learning and memory appear to be conserved from C. elegans to mammals, suggesting that the basic mechanisms underlying learning and memory are ancient. The authors also determined how each of the behaviors declines with age, and tested the effects of two known regulators of longevity - dietary restriction and reduced Insulin/IGF-1 signaling - on these declines. Surprisingly, very different effects on memory were achieved with the two longevity treatments: dietary restriction impaired memory in early adulthood but maintained memory with age, while reduced Insulin/IGF-1 signaling improved early adult memory performance but failed to preserve it with age. These results suggest not only that longevity treatments could help preserve cognitive function with age, but also that different longevity treatments might have very different effects on such declines."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-05/plos-pmw051210.php

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

    UNBELIEVABLE??

    Posted: at 8:16 am


    A headline reporting a new Harris Poll survey stated that “Very few Americans find statements by financial institutions completely believable.”  One specific item of interest was that 51 percent of the respondents said that a statement made by someone who works for a health insurance company was believable (2 percent completely believable, 49 percent somewhat believable) while 49 percent answered not at all believable.  Banks, investment firms and government agencies that regulate financial institutions all fared poorly in the believability research. 

    These results are not shocking in light of the health care debate and economic stresses that reverberate throughout the economy.  However, the survey shows the depth of the difficulty people have with companies and government agencies that are indispensible to their financial well being. 

    This is a good time for intermediaries, whether they are trusted authors, financial advisors, academics and others to fill the void that is obviously missing in the public’s confidence in key industries.  Changes in health care, for example, are sure to cause people to have to rethink sometimes decades old strategies to financing coverage.  The health insurance industry will play a key role in the implementation of health reform, so designing a system in which the public has a basic level of trust is not a trivial matter.

    Aspirin May Increase Risk of Crohn’s Disease

    Posted: at 8:16 am


    Aspirin May Increase Risk of Crohn's Disease

    (HealthDay News) -- A new British study finds that people who take aspirin every day have a higher risk of developing Crohn's disease, a potentially devastating digestive illness.

    But it's still not very likely that aspirin users will develop the condition, and the study's lead author said patients should keep in mind that aspirin lowers the risk of heart disease.

    "If the link with aspirin is a true one, then only a small proportion of those who take aspirin -- approximately one in 2,000 -- may be at risk," said study author Dr. Andrew Hart, a senior lecturer in gastroenterology at University of East Anglia School of Medicine. "If aspirin has been prescribed to people with Crohn's disease or with a family history by their physician, then they should continue to take it. Aspirin has many beneficial effects and should be continued." Read more...

    Ayurtox for Body Detoxification

    Stem Cell Induced Regeneration in the Lung

    Posted: May 19, 2010 at 8:17 am


    Researchers here demonstrate that comparatively simple stem cell transplants may be effective in regenerating lung injuries: "Human stem cells administered intravenously can restore alveolar epithelial tissue to a normal function in a novel ex vivo perfused human lung after E. coli endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) ... ALI is a common cause of respiratory failure in the intensive care units, often leading to death. It can be caused by both direct injury such as aspiration and pneumonia, and indirect injury such as sepsis and from trauma. ... Yearly, ALI affects approximately 200,000 patients in the US and has a 40 percent mortality rate despite extensive investigations into its causes and pathophysiology. Innovative therapies are desperately needed. ... we found that intravenous infusion of [stem cells] preferentially homed to the injured areas of the lung, which means that the cells find their way from the bloodstream to the sites in the lung of injury. ... In addition to having restored function of alveolar epithelial cells, lungs treated with [stem cells] showed a reduction in inflammatory [cytokine] levels suggesting a favorable shift away from a proinflammatory environment in the injured alveolus."

    View the Article Under Discussion: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-05/ats-scr051010.php

    Read More Longevity Meme Commentary: http://www.longevitymeme.org/news/

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