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Holistic Integrative Medicine and Dental Center …

Posted: August 29, 2015 at 7:40 am


Digital Impression No Temporary Crowns Same Day Crowns Healthy dental care for all ages Non invasive FDA approved treatment for fat loss and body contouring Comprehensive Treatment For Lyme Disease and Co-infections Life Without Allergies is Possible

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Patient-Centered Care - Treats the Root Cause of Illness - Uses All Therapies to Enhance Natural Healing

Disease Management and Prevention - Doctor as Partner - Incorporates Nutrition and Lifestyle

Treatment for the Whole Person - for Optimum Health and Wellness, Not Just Freedom from Disease

National Integrated Health Associates (NIHA) are leaders in holistic & integrative medicine and biological dentistry. NIHA has been serving the Washington D.C., Maryland, and Northern Virginia metropolitan area since 1995, although patients come from all over the United States to our integrative medical and dental center.

Integrative doctors blend the best of western medicine and safe, proven complementary and alternative therapies to help the body heal. The professional health team is comprised of holistic medical physicians, biological dentists, naturopaths, a chiropractor, and health professionals highly skilled in acupuncture, nutrition, and other healing therapies.

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT ... Holistic Primary Care is available at NIHA Our holistic primary care providers will offer not only traditional primary care but also incorporate the best complementary therapies to help you achieve optimum wellness, not just freedom from your current condition. Tracy Freeman MD or Susan Greenberg NP will coordinate all your health care needs and therapies in our comprehensive medical and dental center. Click to schedule an appointment.

Integrative medicine looks at the patient holistically, and may assess a patient in different ways in addition to traditional medical examinations and lab tests. These assessments are useful in telling us how the body is functioning, and in finding the root cause of your health issue. We offer more treatment options and therapies for healing mind, body and spirit at the root cause of illness, not just treating the symptoms.

Holistic & Biological Dentistry: Biological dentists use only safe, mercury-free, biocompatible materials and view your oral health as an integral part of overall health. Call 202-237-7000 ext. 2 to learn more about 21st century family dentistry or Request a dental appointment.

Whether you are looking for effective therapies for pain or chronic illness, disease prevention, or to optimize your current state of health, you can be assured of a new level of compassionate medical and dental care.

Good health is a choice. Your commitment and dedication to wellness is our priority too.

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Holistic Integrative Medicine and Dental Center ...

NIHSeniorHealth: Alzheimer’s Disease – What Is Alzheimer’s …

Posted: August 16, 2015 at 8:46 am


Alzheimers disease is a brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. It begins slowly and gets worse over time. Currently, it has no cure.

Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia among older people. Dementia is a loss of thinking, remembering, and reasoning skills that interferes with a persons daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mild stage, when it is just beginning to affect a persons functioning, to the severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic care.

Estimates vary, but experts suggest that more than 5 million Americans may have Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, but recent estimates indicate that the disorder may rank third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people

In most people with Alzheimers, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s, and the risk of developing the disease increases with age. While younger people -- in their 30s, 40s, and 50s -- may get Alzheimer's disease, it is much less common. It is important to note that Alzheimer's disease is not a normal part of aging.

The course of Alzheimers diseasewhich symptoms appear and how quickly changes occurvaries from person to person. The time from diagnosis to death varies, too. It can be as little as 3 or 4 years if the person is over 80 years old when diagnosed or as long as 10 years or more if the person is younger.

Memory problems are typically one of the first signs of Alzheimers disease, though initial symptoms may vary from person to person. A decline in other aspects of thinking, such as finding the right words, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgment, may also signal the very early stages of Alzheimers disease.

People with Alzheimers have trouble doing everyday things like driving a car, cooking a meal, or paying bills. They may ask the same questions over and over, get lost easily, lose things or put them in odd places, and find even simple things confusing. Some people become worried, angry, or violent.

Not all people with memory problems have Alzheimers disease. Mild forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. Some people may notice that it takes longer to learn new things, remember certain words, or find their glasses. Thats different from a serious memory problem, which makes it hard to do everyday things.

Sometimes memory problems are related to health issues that are treatable. For example, medication side effects, vitamin B12 deficiency, head injuries, or liver or kidney disorders can lead to memory loss or possibly dementia. Emotional problems, such as stress, anxiety, or depression, can also make a person more forgetful and may be mistaken for dementia.

Read more about causes of memory loss and how to keep your memory sharp.

Some older people with memory or other thinking problems have a condition called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. MCI can be an early sign of Alzheimers, but not everyone with MCI will develop Alzheimers disease. People with MCI have more memory problems than other people their age, but they can still take care of themselves and do their normal activities.

Signs of MCI may include

If you or someone in your family thinks your forgetfulness is getting in the way of your normal routine, its time to see your doctor. Seeing the doctor when you first start having memory problems can help you find out whats causing your forgetfulness.

Learn more about mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Alzheimer's disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German doctor. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps (now called amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary, or tau, tangles). Plaques and tangles in the brain are two of the main features of Alzheimer's disease. Another is the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Neurons send messages between different parts of the brain, and from the brain to muscles and organs in the body.

It seems likely that damage to the brain starts 10 years or more before memory or other thinking problems become obvious. During the earliest stage of Alzheimers, people are free of symptoms, but harmful changes are taking place in the brain. The damage at first appears to take place in cells of the hippocampus, the part of the brain essential in forming memories. Abnormal protein deposits form plaques and tangles in the brain. Once-healthy nerve cells stop functioning, lose connections with each other, and die. As more nerve cells die, other parts of the brain begin to shrink. By the final stage of Alzheimers, damage is widespread, and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

Get more details about Alzheimers disease.

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NIHSeniorHealth: Alzheimer's Disease - What Is Alzheimer's ...

Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms & Care

Posted: at 8:45 am


Last Updated: April 9, 2015

Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. The most common form of dementia among older people is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which initially involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. Although scientists are learning more every day, right now they still do not know what causes Alzheimer's, and there is no cure.

Scientists think that as many as 4.5 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer's disease. The disease usually begins after age 60, and risk goes up with age. While younger people also may get AD, it is much less common. About 5% of men and women ages 65 to 74 have AD, and nearly half of those age 85 and older may have the disease. It is important to note, however, that AD is not a normal part of aging.

Alzheimer's disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German doctor. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. He found abnormal clumps (now called amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary tangles). Today, these plaques and tangles in the brain are considered signs of AD.

Scientists also have found other brain changes in people with AD. Nerve cells die in areas of the brain that are vital to memory and other mental abilities, and connections between nerve cells are disrupted. There also are lower levels of some of the chemicals in the brain that carry messages back and forth between nerve cells. AD may impair thinking and memory by disrupting these messages.

Scientists do not yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's, but there are several known risk factors:

In addition to the above, scientists are finding increasing evidence that some of the risk factors for heart disease and stroke, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and low levels of the vitamin folate, may also increase the risk of AD. Evidence for physical, mental, and social activities as protective factors against Alzheimer's is also increasing.

Alzheimer's disease begins slowly. At first, the only symptom may be mild forgetfulness, which can be confused with age-related memory change. Most people with mild forgetfulness do not have AD. In the early stage of AD, people may have trouble remembering recent events, activities, or the names of familiar people or things. They may not be able to solve simple math problems. Such difficulties may be a bother, but usually they are not serious enough to cause alarm.

However, as the disease goes on, symptoms are more easily noticed and become serious enough to cause people with AD or their family members to seek medical help. Forgetfulness begins to interfere with daily activities. People in the middle stages of AD may forget how to do simple tasks like brushing their teeth or combing their hair. They can no longer think clearly. They can fail to recognize familiar people and places. They begin to have problems speaking, understanding, reading, or writing. Later on, people with AD may become anxious or aggressive, or wander away from home. Eventually, patients need total care.

An early, accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's helps patients and their families plan for the future. It gives them time to discuss care while the patient can still take part in making decisions. Early diagnosis will also offer the best chance to treat the symptoms of the disease.

Today, the only definite way to diagnose AD is to find out whether there are plaques and tangles in brain tissue. To look at brain tissue, however, doctors usually must wait until they do an autopsy, which is an examination of the body done after a person dies. Therefore, doctors can only make a diagnosis of "possible" or "probable" AD while the person is still alive.

At specialized centers, doctors can diagnose AD correctly up to 90 percent of the time. Doctors use several tools to diagnose "probable" AD, including:

Sometimes these test results help the doctor find other possible causes of the person's symptoms. For example, thyroid problems, drug reactions, depression, brain tumors, and blood vessel disease in the brain can cause AD-like symptoms. Some of these other conditions can be treated successfully.

Alzheimer's disease is a slow disease, starting with mild memory problems and ending with severe brain damage. The course the disease takes and how fast changes occur vary from person to person. On average, AD patients live from 8 to 10 years after they are diagnosed, though some people may live with Alzheimer's for as many as 20 years.

No treatment can stop AD. However, for some people in the early and middle stages of the disease, the drugs tacrine (Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), or galantamine (Razadyne, previously known as Reminyl) may help prevent some symptoms from becoming worse for a limited time. Another drug, memantine (Namenda), has been approved to treat moderate to severe AD, although it also is limited in its effects. Also, some medicines may help control behavioral symptoms of AD such as sleeplessness, agitation, wandering, anxiety, and depression. Treating these symptoms often makes patients more comfortable and makes their care easier for caregivers.

Scientists are exploring several new potential Alzheimer's treatments in hopes of slowing down the disease's progression and lessening it's effects, including:

Most often, spouses and other family members provide the day-to-day care for people with Alzheimer's disease. As the disease gets worse, people often need more and more care. This can be hard for caregivers and can affect their physical and mental health, family life, job, and finances.

The Alzheimer's Association has chapters nationwide that provide educational programs and support groups for caregivers and family members of people with AD. Contact information for the Alzheimer's Association is listed below.

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Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms & Care

Alzheimer’s Disease Condition Center – Health.com

Posted: at 8:45 am


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Alzheimer's Disease Condition Center - Health.com

Alzheimers Disease and Caregiving | Family Caregiver Alliance

Posted: at 8:45 am


Overview

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a condition that causes abnormal changes in the brain mainly affecting memory and other mental abilities. Alzheimer's is a disease, not a normal part of aging. Loss of memory is the usual first symptom. As the disease progresses, the loss of reasoning ability, language, decision-making ability, judgment and other critical skills make navigating day-to-day living impossible without help from others, most often a family member or friend. Sometimes, but not always, difficult changes in personality and behavior occur.

Alzheimer's disease poses real challenges for both the person diagnosed with AD and to those who assume caregiving responsibilities. This does not mean that there will no longer be times of joy, shared laughter and companionship. AD often develops gradually, offering time to adjust to the diagnosis, plan ahead, and spend quality time together.

Nearly 15 million Americans provide unpaid care to a person living with Alzheimer's disease or another dementia (Alzheimer's Association 2011 Facts & Figures). Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist is credited with identifying the first published case of "presenile dementia" in 1907, a condition that is now called Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's is the most common form of dementia in older adults. The words "Alzheimer's" and "dementia" are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same. "Dementia" is a term that means a person is no longer able to function on their own because of a lasting impairment of multiple mental abilities affecting memory, attention, and reasoning. Dementia can be caused by many different medical conditions, such as a severe head injury or major stroke. Other common dementias are Lewy body dementia, Frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and Parkinson's disease dementia (see FCA's fact sheet, Is This Dementia and What Does It Mean?).

Although the cause and progression of AD are not fully understood, increasing evidence shows that the first changes in the brain happen as much as 15 years before symptoms of dementia are exhibited by the person with AD. Certain kinds of brain scans can detect these changes. However, this work is not yet advanced enough for it to be of practical use in predicting who will later develop Alzheimer's disease.

The prevention of Alzheimer's disease is a popular topic in the media. A number of non-medical, life-style practices are recommended for possible prevention, a healthy way to manage the disease, and general age-related well-being. There is evidence, but no documented proof, that mental stimulation (brain games), exercise (like walking, swimming, yoga), social activities, and a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables and foods high in anti-oxidants) may help.

However, there is a great deal of evidence that small strokes are common in people with Alzheimer's disease which only make AD symptoms worse. Given what we know about stroke prevention, maintaining healthy blood pressure, avoiding diabetes or managing it well, keeping cholesterol down, and not smoking are four key things you can do to lower your risk.

This disease can appear as young as age 30, but is typically diagnosed after age 60, and risk of having the disease increases with age. By age 90 as much as 40% of the population may be affected. The genetics of AD are complex and knowledge is changing rapidly. Except for a small percent of families where a single gene causes the disease, having a family member with AD increases your risk only moderately. Alzheimer's disease is reported to be the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S.

People with AD may show symptoms of the disease three to five years before diagnosis. This period, when changes are present but the full-blown disease is absent, is called "mild cognitive impairment" or MCI. It is important to understand that not everyone with MCI goes on to develop AD. In fact, as many as 40-50% may never develop the disease. [See FCA fact sheet Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).] Early problems are often seen as normal changes due to aging, and only in retrospect do caregivers see that symptoms have been occurring for several years. Although on average, individuals survive four to eight years once diagnosed, living for 20 years is not all that unusual. For ease in understanding the changes that occur as the disease progresses, AD is generally divided into three stages: early, middle and late. However, the development of symptoms in an individual will differ from person to person as will the progression of symptoms.

At present there is no single test that leads to a diagnosis of AD. The doctor first needs to establish that the memory loss is abnormal and that the pattern of symptoms fits AD. This sometimes requires specialized memory testing. The doctor then needs to rule out other illnesses that can cause the same symptoms. For example, similar symptoms can be caused by depression, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, thyroid and other metabolic disorders, infections, side effects of medications, drug and alcohol abuse or other conditions. If the symptoms are typical of AD and no other cause is found, the diagnosis is made. In the hands of a skilled doctor this diagnosis is very accurate.

An evaluation for Alzheimer's disease is often requested by a family member or friend who notices memory problems or unusual behavior. The doctor typically begins the evaluation by taking a health history and performing a physical examination, as well as evaluating the patient's cognitive abilities (mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning). This approach can help the doctor determine whether further testing is needed. A primary care physician may refer a patient for more extensive examination by a designated Alzheimer's diagnostic center, a neurologist, dementia or geriatric specialist. This examination will likely include a thorough medical evaluation and history, blood tests and brain scans (MRI or PET), followed by extensive neurological and neuropsychological assessments. A dementia evaluation should include interviews with family members or others who have close contact with the person being evaluated.

Rapid scientific progress is being made in identifying "biomarkers" of AD. Biomarkers are abnormal findings in blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or on brain scans that are markers of AD. There is strong evidence that special tests of the CSF may be useful diagnostically. It is also possible now to see amyloid, a key abnormal protein in AD, in the brain using PET scans. As knowledge advances these tests may come into clinical use. Even now, however, it is clear that they will not be good enough to diagnose AD on their own. The diagnosis will still depend on a skilled and thorough evaluation.

No one fully understands what causes Alzheimer's disease yet, and there is currently no cure. Considerable progress has been made by researchers in recent years though, including the development of several medications for early-stage AD which can help improve cognitive functioning for awhile.

Three main drugs, donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon) and galantamine (Reminyl), have proved beneficial in improving memory, with limited side effects, usually gastro-intestinal upset. Exelon comes in a patch form which is helpful for people who have trouble swallowing pills. Unfortunately, these drugs are not effective for everyone, and their effectiveness is limited to the early and middle stages of AD. Another drug, memantine HCl (Namenda) also prescribed to help delay the progression of AD is often used in combination with the above drugs. A doctor may also prescribe medications to help reduce agitation, anxiety and unpredictable behavior, as well as to improve sleeping patterns and treat depression.

New medications are developed and tested regularly. People interested in participating in clinical trials should discuss the pros and cons with their physician and family. Information on clinical drug trials and other research is available from the Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center (ADEAR) and FCA's Research Registry.

Regular care from a physician is important. Major, sudden changes in mental status can be the main symptom of important treatable conditions such as a urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, or even a bone fracture. If the physician knows the patient, he or she can quickly recognize a change in mental status. But if they are presented with a demented patient that they have not seen in years it can be extremely difficult to know whether anything has changed and the proper workup may not be initiated.

Alzheimer's disease is called a family disease, because the chronic stress of watching a loved one slowly decline affects everyone. An effective treatment will address the needs of the entire family. Caregivers must focus on their own needs, take time for their own health and get support and respite from caregiving regularly to be able to sustain their well-being during this caregiving journey. Emotional and practical support, counseling, resource information and educational programs about Alzheimer's disease all help a caregiver provide the best possible care for a loved one.

Absolutely the easiest thing for someone to say and the hardest thing to accept is the advice to take care of yourself as a caregiver. As stated by one caregiver, "The care you give to yourself is the care you give to your loved one." It is often hard to see beyond the care tasks that await you each morning.

Through training, caregivers can learn how to manage challenging behaviors, improve communication skills and keep the person with Alzheimer's safe. Research shows that caregivers experience lower stress and better health when they learn skills through caregiver training and participate in a support group(s) (online or in person). Participation in these groups can allow caregivers to care for their loved one at home longer.

When you're starting out as a family caregiver, it's hard to know where to begin. Perhaps you've only recently realized that a loved one needs assistance and is no longer as self-sufficient as he or she once was. Or perhaps there has been a sudden change in their health.

Now it is time to take action, and take stock of the people, services and information that will help you provide care. The earlier you get support, the better.

The resources listed at the end of this fact sheet will help you locate local training classes and support groups. (See two of FCA's fact sheets: Caregiver's Guide to Understanding Dementia Behaviors, and Dementia, Caregiving and Controlling Frustration; as well as the article, Ten Real-life Strategies for Dementia Caregiving).

The role of the caregiver changes over time as the needs of the person with AD change. The following table offers a summary of the stages of AD, what kinds of behaviors to expect, and caregiving information and recommendations related to each stage of the disease.

Trouble remembering recent events or conversations, the month or day of the week

Asking the same question over and over or repeating stories

Loss of ability to manage finances, making mistakes in writing checks

Withdrawal from social situations and general apathy; trouble initiating an activity

Cooking and shopping become more difficult; pans may be left to burn on the stove, and food may be forgotten in the refrigerator

Poor judgment - difficulty making wise decisions; may be easily swayed by others

Tendency to lose things or forget where they are when they are "put away carefully"

May become disoriented in familiar surroundings or get lost easily

Driving ability is compromised; unfamiliar driving routes or driving in an unfamiliar place will prove difficult

Denial that anything is wrong

During the early stage, both the caregiver and the individual with AD will want to take time to adjust to the diagnosis and make plans for the future:

Learning: The more you know about AD, the easier it will be for you as a caregiver. Learn as much as you can about the early and middle stages of AD; don't worry about the late stage yet. Finding other caregivers to talk to can also be a great way to learn about and make sense of your own experience. One of the most difficult things to learn is to differentiate between the disease and your loved one. Particularly in the early stage, caregivers may find themselves thinking, "He's doing this to spite me!" or "She is just being lazy." In these cases, the behavior that is upsetting to the caregiver is usually a result of the disease process, not an attempt by the person with AD to hurt or frustrate the caregiver.

Emotional Support: A diagnosis of AD can be a heart-wrenching experience for both the person diagnosed and the caregiver. The person with AD may not remember or may not admit to having the disease or ever being told they had Alzheimer's. Trying to convince them otherwise is fruitless and frustrating for the caregiver. The caregiver needs to get appropriate emotional support through counseling, a support group or other family members. The goal is to establish a system of emotional support that will grow and change with you as your caregiving role and the emotional challenges change. Depression is common in caregivers of people with AD and should be addressed.

Family Roles: As the disease progresses, it will be harder for the person with AD to fulfill the roles they have typically played in the family. For example, if he or she was the only driver in the family, it will be important for family members to find alternative means of transportation (e.g., learning how to drive, recruiting volunteer drivers from among family and friends, using public transportation or paratransit). If the person with AD customarily prepared all of the meals, now is the time for the caregiver to begin learning how to cook. If the person with AD was in charge of household finances, someone else will need to assume this role. Focusing on these issues early will allow the person with AD to help the caregiver prepare for the future.

Finances: AD can be a costly disease. It is important to begin mapping out strategies for meeting the increasing financial demands placed on the family as the disease progresses. Financial planning should include reviewing your insurance coverage, e.g., health, disability, long-term care. Be aware that Medicare does not pay for long-term care or custodial care. Medicaid, the safety net for those living on a limited income, does provide coverage for those who qualify. Health insurance counseling is available free to seniors. To locate help in your community, call the Eldercare Locator at (800) 677-1116 or HICAP at (800) 434-0222.

Legal: Eventually the person with AD will need help making medical decisions, financial decisions and in making all sorts of important personal decisions such as who will provide for their care. Legal documents should be completed as early as possible in the disease process, even prior to a diagnosis. Waiting too long may result in the person no longer being deemed capable of signing legal documents. A Power of Attorney for Finances and Power of Attorney for Healthcare (Advanced Health Care Directive) can ensure that the person with AD is cared for by trusted family members or friends. Without these documents, caregivers may have to petition for conservatorship through court proceedings in order to get the right to make decisions on behalf of the person with AD. The family may also lose access to bank accounts if a member is not co-named on the account(s). Clear legal documentation can help prevent someone from attempting to take advantage of or lay claim to financial resources for their personal gain. Free and low-cost legal services are available to seniors. See the resource section of this fact sheet for organizations that can help with legal issues.

Difficult behaviors emerge often, but not always. Common examples include:

Anger, suspicion, overreacting, and paranoia (e.g., believing that family members are stealing money or a spouse is having an affair)

More repetition of questions or statements

Wandering or sundowning (i.e., restlessness or agitation in the late afternoon and evenings)

Fear of bathing

Eating problems, table manners decline

Involuntary leakage of urine (incontinence) or having urine "accidents"

Hoarding belongings, especially paper

Inappropriate sexual behavior

Violent behavior - hitting, shouting, arming themselves for protection

Will go from needing help choosing clothes and remembering to change clothes to needing help getting dressed

Will progress from needing reminders regarding personal care to needing help bathing, taking medication, brushing teeth, shaving, brushing hair, toileting, etc?

Increased difficulty with verbal expression and comprehension, particularly when trying to name items

Spatial problems (e.g., having trouble finding their way, sometimes even at home)

Loss of reading, writing and arithmetic abilities; difficulty following the story line of a television show

Loss of coordination often leading to shuffling feet or gait problems

Will need care or supervision; possibly for 24 hours a day

May lose the ability to recognize family and friends at times

During the middle stage of AD, the caregiver's role will expand to full time. Keeping the person with AD safe will become a priority. Both the person with AD and the caregiver will need help and support.

Dealing With Challenging Behaviors: We often use intuition to help us decide what to do. Unfortunately, dealing with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias is counter-intuitive; i.e., often the right thing to do is exactly opposite of what seems like the right thing to do. (See FCA article: Ten Real-life Strategies for Dementia Caregiving.)

Emotional Support: People caring for loved ones with AD frequently feel isolated, and feelings of grief and loss surface as the person they are caring for changes (see FCA fact sheet, Caregiving and Ambiguous Loss). Getting emotional support from professionals, family, friends and/or a support group as well as taking periodic breaks from the responsibilities of caregiving is crucial to the mental and physical health of caregivers. Be sure to speak to your physician if you feel depressed or anxious.

Respite Care: Caregivers need a regular break or "respite" from providing care and assistance. Respite care includes in-home help (another family member, a neighbor, friend, hired caregiver, or volunteer caregiver), and out of home help (adult day care or a short stay in an assisted care facility). The "Family Care Navigator" on caregiver.org can help you locate the Area Agency on Aging, a source for your local community respite resources. (See FCA's fact sheet Community Care Options and Making Choices About Everyday Care to learn about programs that can help ease the demands placed on the caregiver.)

Safety: Creating a safe and comfortable environment is important. An occupational therapist or physical therapist can provide advice and help in making the home safer for both the caregiver and care recipient. Ask your physician, the local Alzheimer's Association or the Area Agency on Aging for a referral to a professional who is experienced in home modification and assistive devices. For people with AD who are at risk of becoming lost outside of their home, the local police should be advised, and the person should register with the Alzheimer's Association's Safe Return program.

Medical Care: The person with AD will need ongoing medical care both for AD and for any other health problems that might arise. Over time the caregiver will be depended upon to help provide the status update to medical staff. Make sure there is a release of information noted in the medical chart of the patient so that the physician can speak freely with you. It is important to develop a positive relationship with the physician(s) and other health care professionals. You will need them to understand your role as the caregiver, listen to your input and work with you as a team member in providing appropriate medical care.

The stress of caregiving can affect your health. Be sure to take care of yourself by getting regular medical care for yourself. If you need to be hospitalized or need time off from your caregiving duties, emergency respite care can be arranged. A caregiver whose health is seriously affected may need to look at alternative options for a loved one, such as a residential facility.

Planning for the Future: Many caregivers wish to keep their loved one at home for as long as possible. However, if more care, or a different type of care, is needed than what can be provided at home, residential care is often then next best option. Many assisted care facilities have programs specifically designed for individuals with dementia. Hiring in-home help is an alternative to relocating your loved one to a care facility. (For more information about these next steps, see FCA's fact sheets, Home Away from Home: Relocating Your Parents and Hiring In-Home Help.)

Loss of ability to communicate

Inability to recognize people, places and objects

Requires full assistance with all personal care activities

Loses ability to walk

Loses ability to smile

Muscles may become contracted

May lose ability to swallow

Seizures may occur

Weight loss

Majority of time spent sleeping

May exhibit a need to suck on items

Incontinence of both bowel and bladder

Placement: Families caring for a loved one with end-stage Alzheimer's should give thoughtful consideration to placement in a skilled nursing facility or dementia care facility, where adequate management and supervision can be provided.

Hospice: Hospice services are designed to support individuals at the end of life. Services may include support groups, visiting nurses, pain management and home care. Hospice services are usually arranged through the treating physician, and are usually not available until the physician anticipates that a person has less than six months to live. Several organizations specialize in helping families deal with the challenges involved in end-of-life care. (See FCA's fact sheet, Making Choices About Everyday Care and the end-of-life fact sheets, including Holding on and Letting Go; refer to the resource section at the end of this fact sheet for more information.)

Again, it's important to remember that the life-changing effects of Alzheimer's disease for both the person diagnosed with AD and those who assume caregiving responsibilities does not mean that there will no longer be times of joy. Although the challenges are real, the often slow progression of the disease offers time for shared laughter, intimacy, and social experiences. You will have opportunities to manage legal and financial issues in advance, and adjust to the diagnosis so that you can make the most of your time together.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health, "Alzheimer's Disease." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. June 2010.

2011 Alzheimer's Disease Facts & Figures: Includes a Special Report on Facts & Figures. Alzheimer's & Dementia, Volume 7, Issue 2.: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association. March 2011.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20894 USA http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001767/

Alzheimer's: A Love Story, Ann Davidson, (1997). Carol Publishing, 120 Enterprise Avenue, Seacaucus, NJ 07094.

Learning to Speak Alzheimer's, Joanne Koenig Coste (2003). Mariner Books - Houghton & Mifflin Co., New York, NY 10003.

The Alzheimer's Action Plan: The Experts' Guide to the Best Diagnosis and Treatment for Memory Problems, (2008) P. Murali Doraiswamy M.D., Lisa P., M.S.W. Gwyther, Tina Adler. 2008 Macmillan.

The 36-Hour Day: A Family Guide to Caring for Persons With Alzheimer Disease, Related Dementing Illnesses, and Memory Loss in Later Life, Nancy Mace and Peter Rabins, Revised Edition (2001). The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD, 21218.

The Best Friends Approach to Alzheimer's Care, Virginia Bell and David Troxel (1997). Health Professions Press, P.O. Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285.

Family Caregiver Alliance 785 Market Street, Suite 750 San Francisco, CA 94103 (415) 434-3388 (800) 445-8106 Web Site: caregiver.org E-mail: [emailprotected]

Family Caregiver Alliance (FCA) seeks to improve the quality of life for caregivers through education, services, research and advocacy. Services include: comprehensive website for families and professionals; on-line and printed versions of fact sheets covering a wide range of topics related to caregiving and brain disorders.

FCA's National Center on Caregiving offers information on current social, public policy and caregiving issues and provides assistance in the development of public and private programs for caregivers, as well as a toll-free call center for family caregivers and professionals nationwide. For San Francisco Bay Area residents, FCA provides direct family support services for caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ALS, head injury, Parkinson's and other debilitating brain disorders that strike adults.

Alzheimer's Association 225 N. Michigan Ave., Floor 17 Chicago, IL 60601-7633 (312) 335-8700, (800) 272-3900 http://www.alz.org Provides education, support and service for people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and related conditions.

Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center (ADEAR) P.O. Box 8250 Silver Spring, MD 20907 (800) 438-4380 [emailprotected] http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers The center provides information about Alzheimer's disease, current research and clinical trials.

Alzheimer's Foundation of America 322 8th Ave., 7th Fl. New York, NY 10001 (866) 232-8484 http://www.alzfdn.org The Alzheimer's Foundation of America offers support, respite grants, toll-free phone line for family caregivers who wish to speak with a social worker, online articles, professional education and training, and AFA Teens.

Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers Nationwide http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/alzheimers-disease-research-centers

California Alzheimer's Disease Centers cadc.ucsf.edu/cadc The CADC lists all of the Alzheimer's Disease Centers in the State of California.

Eldercare Locator (800) 677-1116 http://www.eldercare.gov The Eldercare Locator helps older adults and their caregivers find local services including health insurance counseling, free and low-cost legal services and information for local Area Agencies on Aging.

Medicare.Gov http://www.medicare.gov The official US Government site for Medicare.

National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys 1604 N. Country Club Road Tucson, AZ 85716 (520) 881-4005 http://www.naela.org The National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys, Inc. (NAELA) Offers a directory of Elder Law Attorneys on their website.

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Alzheimer’s disease | Define Alzheimer’s disease at …

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noun, Pathology 1.

a common form of dementia, believed to be caused by changes in the brain, usually beginning in late middle age, characterized by memory lapses, confusion, emotional instability, and progressive loss of mental ability.

Also called Alzheimers.

named after Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915), German neurologist, who described it in 1907

British Dictionary definitions for Alzheimer's disease Expand

a disorder of the brain resulting in a progressive decline in intellectual and physical abilities and eventual dementia Often shortened to Alzheimer's

C20: named after A. Alzheimer (18641915), German physician who first identified it

Word Origin and History for Alzheimer's disease Expand

(senium prcox), 1912, title of article by S.C. Fuller published in "Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases;" named for German neurologist Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915). The name was not common before 1970s; shortened form Alzheimer's first recorded 1954. The surname is from the place name Alzheim, literally "Old Hamlet."

Alzheimer's disease in Medicine Expand

Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease (lts'h-mrz, lts'-, lts'-) n. A degenerative disease of the brain, characterized by clumps of neurofibrils and microscopic brain lesions and by confusion, disorientation, memory failure, and speech disturbances, and resulting in progressive loss of mental capacity.

Alzheimer's disease in Science Expand

Alzheimer's disease in Culture Expand

A disease in which mental capacity decreases because of the breakdown of brain cells.

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Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

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Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Disease Overview

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in industrialized nations. Dementia is a brain disorder that interferes with a person's ability to carry out everyday activities.

Alzheimer's disease affects mainly people aged 60 years or older.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disease, which means that it gets worse over time. It cannot be cured or reversed by any known treatment.

Because of this, Alzheimer's disease is considered a major public health problem.

We do not know exactly what causes Alzheimer's disease. There is probably not one single cause, but a number of factors that come together in certain people to cause the disease.

At least three different genes have been linked to Alzheimer's disease.

Much of the research in Alzheimer's disease has focused on why and how some people develop deposits of the abnormal protein in their brains. Once the process is understood, it may be possible to develop treatments that stop or prevent it.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/1/2014

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Images courtesy of the National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health.

Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive, degenerative brain disease that slowly erodes memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out simple tasks. It is the most common cause of dementia. It is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for approximately 50-70% of all cases of dementia. The incidence of AD rises exponentially with advancing age. Estimates vary, but experts suggest that as many as 5.1 million Americans may have Alzheimers. The greatest risk for Alzheimers disease is advancing age, with the risk increasing as we get older.

The major underlying mechanism of AD is the accumulation of proteins called beta-amyloid and tau within the brain. Although we still dont know what starts the disease process, it can go on for many years without symptoms. This is called the preclinical or presymptomatic stage of the disease. As more and more beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (aggregates of tau) form in particular brain areas, healthy neurons begin to work less efficiently, then lose their ability to function and communicate with each other, and eventually die. This process seems to begin in the parts of the brain responsible for forming new memories, in particular, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The early symptomatic stage of AD is called mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As more neurons die, affected brain regions begin to shrink, leading to the functional problems, which are the signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's. By the final stage, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

The major underlying mechanism of Alzheimers is the accumulation of a protein called beta-amyloid in neurons. Although we still dont know what starts the disease process, we do know that damage to the brain begins as many as 10 to 20 years before any problems are evident. As more and more beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles form in particular brain areas, healthy neurons begin to work less efficiently, then lose their ability to function and communicate with each other, and eventually die. This process spreads to the hippocampus, which is essential in forming new memories. As more neurons die, affected brain regions begin to shrink, leading to the functional problems, which are the signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's. By the final stage, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

Less than 5% of AD is caused by dominant genes that are transmitted through families. In these families, people usually show symptoms well before the age of 65 and symptoms sometimes begin in the 30s. This form of AD is called early-onset familial Alzheimers disease (EOFAD). Additionally, there are other genes that increase or decrease susceptibility to AD but do not cause the disease.

Three predisposition genes have been associated with EOFAD. They are presenilin 1 (PS1) on chromosome 14, presenilin 2 (PS2) on chromosome 1, and the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) on chromosome 21. All of these genes affect the processing of the amyloid precursor protein and increase the generation of toxic beta-amyloid (Abeta 42), which creates the plaques in AD. All three of these genes are inherited as autosomal dominant genes, which means that carriers of the genes have a 50% risk of passing the gene to their offspring. Likewise, other first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) have a 50% chance of carrying the gene. Clinical testing is available for the PS1 gene, but because of the small number of families with mutations in PS2 and APP, testing for these genes is currently only done through research labs.

Up to 20% of presenile AD seems to be due to the presence of certain susceptibility genes that cause the disease to occur earlier in life than it would without the gene. Of these genes, the APOE gene has the clearest and strongest association. APOE is found in three different forms: APOE 2, APOE 3 or APOE 4. Like all other genes, each cell contains two copies (alleles) of the APOE gene. These alleles can be the same form or different forms of APOE. APOE 3 is the most common form of the gene and is found in approximately 75% of the population. APOE 4 has been associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimers. People with two copies of APOE 4 have a significant increased risk (16-fold) over the general population, and people with one copy have about a 3-fold increased risk. Unlike the predisposition genes, however, APOE is a susceptibility gene. Not everybody with APOE 4 develops AD. Similarly, people without APOE 4 can develop AD. Other genetic and environmental factors also influence susceptibility. Therefore, until preventative treatment is available, presymptomatic testing for APOE is not recommended.

Usually appearing after the age of 60, the first symptom of AD is impaired memory formation, especially for recent events or newly learned information. Memory lapses may be very subtle at first, thus leading many people to discount the symptoms as a sign of getting old. A person may ask the same question or say the same thing repeatedly within a short period of time but without remembering the prior conversation. Important objects such as checkbooks or wallets may be misplaced and lost. In the kitchen, pots can be left on the stove resulting in burnt food or small fires.

As AD progresses, details or even the occurrence of recent events may be forgotten. Implicit (or memory for overlearned activities like riding a bike) and semantic memory (fact memory), as well as long-term memory, remain relatively intact early, but decline in these forms of memory eventually develops.

While memory is a key feature, AD is also defined by a decline in visuospatial skills, language, abstraction, planning and organization. Visuospatial problems may cause a person to become disoriented or lost in familiar environments. Accidents or becoming lost while driving can occur. Inability to recognize familiar individuals may also develop. Language problems such as word-finding difficulty occurs early but impaired comprehension or decreased speech output may occur in the later stages. Declines in planning and organization often result in missed bill payments and difficulty handling finances.

Behavioral symptoms are also common in AD. Apathy or decreased motivation causes affected individuals to appear lazy and indifferent. Depression is also common. In some cases, the onset of depression late in life may precede the cognitive symptoms of AD. Agitation including physical and verbal aggressiveness may develop, usually later in the illness. Delusions and hallucinations can appear at any stage of Alzheimer's, but usually occur a few years after AD is diagnosed. In rare instances, patients may believe that familiar people have been replaced with imposters.

Memory problems are one of the first signs of AD. Some people with memory problems have a condition called amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which means they have more memory problems than normal for people their age, but their symptoms are not as severe as those with AD. More people with MCI, compared with those without MCI, go on to develop AD.

As Alzheimers disease progresses, memory loss continues and changes in other cognitive abilities appear. Problems can include getting lost, trouble handling money and paying bills, repeating questions, taking longer to complete normal daily tasks, poor judgment, and small mood and personality changes. People often are diagnosed in this stage.

As Alzheimer's disease progresses, plaques and tangles spread throughout the brain, starting in the neocortex. By the final stage, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly. In this stage, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing and conscious thought. Memory loss and confusion increase, and people begin to have problems recognizing family and friends. They may be unable to learn new things, carry out tasks that involve multiple steps (such as getting dressed) or cope with new situations. They may have hallucinations, delusions and paranoia and may behave impulsively. Imaging of the brain often reveals atrophy of the parietal and medial temporal lobes.

By the final stage, plaques and tangles have spread throughout the brain, and brain tissue has shrunk significantly. People with severe Alzheimers cannot communicate and are completely dependent on others for their care. Near the end, the person may be in bed most or all of the time, as the body shuts down. Generalized cerebral atrophy with posterior predominance may be seen on imaging.

Cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), galantamine (Razadyne/Reminyl)) can help manage Alzheimers, but they do not cure or reverse the course of AD. In the Alzheimer-afflicted brain, the cells that transmit the chemical messenger acetylcholine are damaged or destroyed, resulting in lower levels of the messenger. A cholinesterase inhibitor is designed to stop the activity of acetylcholinesterase, thereby slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine. By maintaining higher levels of acetylcholine, the drug may help compensate for the loss of functioning brain cells. Some individuals may experience a mild, temporary improvement in cognition soon after starting the medication. However, the duration of improvement and stability is highly variable. It appears that all individuals with AD will progress over the long-term despite treatment. Generally, cholinesterase inhibitors are well tolerated. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and increased frequency of bowel movements may occur with any cholinesterase inhibitor. There is no evidence that combining the drugs would be any more beneficial than taking one alone and combining the drugs results in greater side effects. Patients taking acetylcholinesterase inhibitors should be monitored when they have physical conditions that might be worsened by cholinergic drugs such as some heart conditions, and when they are taking other cholinergic drugs. Nausea, dizziness and diarrhea are the most common side-effects, although some patients show worsening of dreams. Several herbals, Chinese club moss also known as huperzine A and galantamine in the herbal form, are found in over the counter memory products possess similar side effects as the Alzheimers prescription drugs. It is important to report all medications, including herbals, nutraceuticals, etc. to your physicians. In addition, medications with anticholinergic activity should be avoided where possible (examples: Benadryl, Cogentin, Tylenol PM, Ditropan). Ask your pharmacist which medications have significant anticholinergic activity.

Memantine (Namenda) has been approved for the treatment of moderate-severe AD. As a NMDA antagonist, memantine reduces the excessive excitation of nerve cells by glutamate. Most patients will be prescribed a cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine together. Memantine appears to have few side effects and drug interactions. Memantine is useful for those individuals who cannot tolerate a cholinesterase inhibitor or in those patients with heart disease that affects the timing mechanism of the heart. Side effects are not common, but increased confusion, falls, and headaches may occur. Nausea and vomiting are not typically a problem. The dose of memantine may need to be adjusted downwards for individuals with significantly impaired kidney function.

A variety of medications are prescribed, with variable success, for psychiatric behavioral problems associated with AD and other dementia. Hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, severe agitation with aggressive/combative features and depression may require more potent (and toxic) psychotherapeutic agents, although their use should be considered with caution. Keeping a detailed diary of problem behaviors can greatly assist the health care provider in evaluating these behaviors and selecting an appropriate medication or non-pharmacological approaches to treating the behavior.

Non-pharmacological interventions can be beneficial for people with AD. A regular exercise regimen may increase energy levels, reduce apathy and improve the overall sense of well-being. Since lack of motivation can be significant in AD, a personal trainer may assist in compliance with the exercise program.

Ergoloid mesylates (Hydergine), clyclandelate (Cyclospasmol), papaverine (Pavabid), niacin, lecithin and choline hydrochloride have been tried as agents to improve memory and reduce confusion. Although published research suggested many of these drugs should be effective in dementia patients, this was not generally observed in actual patient care. At this time, there appears to be little reason to prescribe any of these drugs for AD.

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Alzheimer’s Disease Symptoms, Causes, Treatment – Who’s at …

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Who's at risk for getting Alzheimer's disease? Age

The main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is increased age. As a population ages, the frequency of Alzheimer's disease continues to increase. Ten percent of people over 65 years of age and 50% of those over 85 years of age have Alzheimer's disease. Unless new treatments are developed to decrease the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease, the number of individuals with Alzheimer's disease in the United States is expected to be 13.8 million by the year 2050.

There are also genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Most people develop Alzheimer's disease after age 70. However, less than 5% of people develop the disease in the fourth or fifth decade of life (40s or 50s). At least half of these early onset patients have inherited gene mutations associated with their Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the children of a patient with early onset Alzheimer's disease who has one of these gene mutations has a 50% risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

Common forms of certain genes increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, but do not invariably cause Alzheimer's disease. The best-studied "risk" gene is the one that encodes apolipoprotein E (apoE).

This means that in majority of patients with Alzheimer's disease, no genetic risk factor has yet been found. Most experts do not recommend that adult children of patients with Alzheimer's disease should have genetic testing for the apoE4 gene since there is no treatment for Alzheimer's disease. When medical treatments that prevent or decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease become available, genetic testing may be recommended for adult children of patients with Alzheimer's disease so that they may be treated.

Many, but not all, studies have found that women have a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease than men. It is certainly true that women live longer than men, but age alone does not seem to explain the increased frequency in women. The apparent increased frequency of Alzheimer's disease in women has led to considerable research about the role of estrogen in Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that estrogen should not be prescribed to post-menopausal women for the purpose of decreasing the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Nonetheless, the role of estrogen in Alzheimer's disease remains an area of research focus.

Other risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include:

Some studies have found that Alzheimer's disease occurs more often among people who suffered significant traumatic head injuries earlier in life, particularly among those with the apoE4 gene.

In the majority of Alzheimer's disease cases, however, no specific genetic risks have yet been identified.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/13/2015

Alzheimer's Disease - Symptoms Question: Please describe the symptoms you or loved one experienced with Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's Disease - Treatments Question: What stage of Alzheimer's disease are you or your loved one currently experiencing, and have any treatments been effective?

Alzheimer's Disease - Caregiver Question: What tips do you have for caregivers of someone with Alzheimer's disease?

Alzheimer's Disease - Dementia Question: Has a friend or relative been diagnosed with dementia? What are her/his symptoms?

Alzheimer's Disease - Warning Signs Question: Do you have any of the warning signs of Alzheimer's? Please discuss your symptoms and concerns.

Alzheimer's Disease - Home Safety Question: In what ways have you made the home safer for a friend or relative with Alzheimer's disease?

Alzheimer's Disease - Medications Question: If your relative is on a medication for Alzheimer's, what changes have you noticed?

Alzheimer's Disease - Driving Question: What motivated you to take away the keys or car from your loved one who has Alzheimer's?

Alzheimer's Disease - Experience Question: Do someone you love have Alzheimer's disease? Please share your experience.

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Treatment

The goals in treating Alzheimer disease are to:

There is no cure for Alzheimer disease. The most promising treatments include lifestyle changes and medications.

Studies show the following lifestyle changes may help improve behavior in people with Alzheimer disease:

Several drugs are available to help slow the progression of Alzheimer disease and possibly improve mental function.

Cholinesterase inhibitors: increase the amount of acetylcholine in the brain. Side effects can include nausea, fatigue, and diarrhea. This class of drugs includes:

Memantine (Namenda): This drug works by regulating a chemical messenger called glutamate, which is involved in information storage and retrieval in the brain. Side effects may include headache, constipation, confusion, and dizziness. It is the only drug approved for treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer disease.

The following medications may also ease the symptoms related to Alzheimer disease:

People with Alzheimer disease may need help with their diet. They often forget to eat and drink and can get dehydrated.

Follow these tips for a healthy diet:

Always tell you doctor about any herb or dietary supplement you are taking, because some could interact with other medicines. These supplements may help with some symptoms of Alzheimer disease, although more research is needed:

Herbs may strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider before starting treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, or teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, you should make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 to 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 to 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 to 4 cups per day.

Small studies have shown that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a technique used in physical therapy and certain types of acupuncture, may improve memory and daily living skills in people with Alzheimer disease. More studies are needed.

People with Alzheimer disease become frustrated and anxious because they cannot communicate well with language. Using touch, or massage, as nonverbal communication may help. In one study, people with Alzheimer disease who got hand massages and were spoken to in a calming manner had lower pulse rates and did not engage in as much inappropriate behavior. Health care professionals think that massage may help not only because it is relaxing, but because it provides a form of social interaction.

Music Therapy

Music therapy, using music to calm and heal, cannot slow or reverse dementia. But it may improve quality of life for both a person with Alzheimer disease and their caregiver. Clinical reports suggest that music therapy may reduce wandering and restlessness and increase chemicals in the brain that promote sleep and ease anxiety. Studies also show that listening to music improves mood.

Aromatherapy

Preliminary studies suggest aromatherapy, including lavendar may help alleviate agitation among people who have dementia.

Support for the Caregiver

Studies suggest that caregivers who receive emotional support have better quality of life, which also benefits the people they care for.

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Tabet N, Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.

van Marum RJ. Current and future therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;22(3):265-74. Review.

Vellas B, Coley N, Ousset PJ, Berrut G, Dartigues JF, Dubois B, Grandjean H, Pasquier F, Piette F, Robert P, Touchon J, Garnier P, Mathiex-Fortunet H, Andrieu S; GuidAge Study Group. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Oct;11(10):851-9. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70206-5. Epub 2012 Sep 6. Review.

Wang J, Ho L, Zhao W, Ono K, Rosensweig C, Chen L, Humala N, et al. Grape-derived polyphenolics prevent Abeta oligomerization and attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2008 Jun 18;28(25):6388-92.

Wettstein A. Cholinesterase inibitors and ginkgo extracts -- are they comparable in the treatment of dementia? Phytomed. 2000;6:393-401.

Yoon JH, Baek SJ. Molecular targets of dietary polyphenols with anti-inflammatory properties. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46(5):585-96.

Yue J, Dong BR, Lin X, Yang M, Wu HM, Wu T. Huperzine A for mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:CD008827. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008827.pub2.

Zhang HY, Zheng CY, Yan H, Wang ZF, Tang LL, Gao X, Tang XC. Potential therapeutic targets of huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Sep 25;175(1-3):396-402. (Epub 2008 May 13)

Zhao Y, Zhao B. Natural antioxidants in prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:794-808. Review.

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Alzheimer disease | University of Maryland Medical Center

Alzheimer’s Disease – NIHSeniorHealth

Posted: at 8:45 am


Alzheimer's disease varies from person to person so not everyone will have the same symptoms. Also, the disease progresses faster in some people than in others. In general, though, Alzheimers takes many years to develop and becomes increasingly severe over time.

Memory problems are typically one of the first signs of Alzheimers disease. However, not all memory problems are caused by Alzheimers. If you or someone in your family thinks your forgetfulness is getting in the way of your normal routine, its time to see your doctor. He or she can find out whats causing these problems.

A person in the early (mild) stage of Alzheimers disease may

Other thinking problems besides memory loss may be the first sign of Alzheimers disease. A person may have

See a chart that compares signs of Alzheimers disease with signs of normal aging.

As Alzheimers disease progresses to the moderate stage, memory loss and confusion grow worse, and people may have problems recognizing family and friends. Other symptoms at this stage may include

As Alzheimers disease becomes more severe, people lose the ability to communicate. They may sleep more, lose weight, and have trouble swallowing. Often they are incontinentthey cannot control their bladder and/or bowels. Eventually, they need total care.

An early, accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease helps people and their families plan for the future. It gives them time to discuss care options, find support, and make legal and financial arrangements while the person with Alzheimers can still take part in making decisions. Also, even though no medicine or other treatment can stop or slow the disease, early diagnosis offers the best chance to treat the symptoms.

The only definitive way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease is to find out whether plaques and tangles exist in brain tissue. To look at brain tissue, doctors perform a brain autopsy, an examination of the brain done after a person dies.

Doctors can only make a diagnosis of "possible" or probable Alzheimers disease while a person is alive. Doctors with special training can diagnose Alzheimer's disease correctly up to 90 percent of the time. Doctors who can diagnose Alzheimers include geriatricians, geriatric psychiatrists, and neurologists. A geriatrician specializes in the treatment of older adults. A geriatric psychiatrist specializes in mental problems in older adults. A neurologist specializes in brain and nervous system disorders.

To diagnose Alzheimers disease, doctors may

Test results can help doctors know if there are other possible causes of the person's symptoms. For example, thyroid problems, drug reactions, depression, brain tumors, head injury, and blood-vessel disease in the brain can cause symptoms similar to those of Alzheimer's. Many of these other conditions can be treated successfully.

Researchers are exploring new ways to help doctors diagnose Alzheimers disease earlier and more accurately. Some studies focus on changes in a persons memory, language, and other mental functions. Others look at changes in blood, spinal fluid, and brain-scan results that may detect Alzheimers years before symptoms appear.

Watch a video that explains changes in diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimers.

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Alzheimer's Disease - NIHSeniorHealth

Alzheimer’s disease research – Wikipedia, the free …

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In April 2014 there were 315 open clinical trials under way to understand and treat Alzheimer's disease. 42 of these studies were open, human phase three trials, the last step before United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and marketing.[1]

There are different approaches. One approach is to reduce amyloid beta, for example with bapineuzumab, an antibody in phase III studies for patients in mild to moderate stage; semagacestat, a -secretase inhibitor, MPC-7869; and acc-001 or CAD106, vaccines against amyloid beta. Other approaches are neuroprotective agents, like AL-108 (phase II completed); or metal-protein interaction attenuation, as is the case of PBT2 (phase II completed). Yet another approach is to use general cognitive enhancers, as may be the case for memantine, a pharmaceutical approved in the United States and European Union to treat moderate-to-severe AD. A recent (March 2015) physical approach utilizes ultrasound for penetrating the blood-brain barrier and activating microglial cells, in experimental animals; researchers reported in Science that the essay eliminates a great proportion of amyloid beta and restores memory function. Finally, there are basic investigations on the origin and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.

Several potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, including several compounds being studied in phase 3 clinical trials. The most important clinical research is focused on potentially treating the underlying disease pathology, for which reduction of amyloid beta is a common target of compounds under investigation.

Immunotherapy or vaccination for Alzheimer's stimulates the immune system to attack beta-amyloid. One approach is active immunization, which would stimulate a permanent immune response.[2] The vaccine AN-1792 showed promise in mouse and early human trials, but in a 2002 Phase II trial, 6% of subjects (18 of 300) developed serious brain inflammation resembling meningoencephalitis, and the trial was stopped. In long-term followups, 20% of subjects had developed high levels of antibodies to beta-amyloid. While placebo-patients and non-antibody responders worsened, these antibody-responders showed a degree of stability in cognitive levels as assessed by the neuropsychological test battery (although not by other measures), and had lower levels of the protein tau in their cerebrospinal fluid. These results may suggest reduced disease activity in the antibody-responder group. Autopsies found that immunization resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques, but did not prevent progressive neurodegeneration.[3]

A Phase IIA study of ACC-001, a modified version of AN-1792, is now recruiting subjects.[4]

One A vaccine was found to be effective against inclusion body myositis in mouse models.[5]

Also derived from the AN-1792 immunotherapy program, there is an infused antibody approach termed a passive vaccine in that it does not invoke the immune system and would require regular infusions to maintain the artificial antibody levels. Micro-cerebral hemorrhages may be a threat to this process.

The most advanced such candidate is known as bapineuzumab or aab-001, and this antibody is designed as essentially identical to the natural antibody triggered by the earlier AN-1792 vaccine. The aab-001 antibody is in Phase 3 clinical trials for both Apolipoprotein E4 gene carriers,[6] and Apolipoprotein E4 gene non-carriers.[7]

Gamma secretase is a protein complex thought to be a fundamental building block in the development of the amyloid beta peptide. A gamma secretase inhibitor, semagacestat, failed to show any benefit to Alzheimer's disease patients in clinical trials.[8]

Tarenflurbil (MPC-7869, formerly R-flubiprofen) is a gamma secretase modulator sometimes called a selective amyloid beta 42 lowering agent. It is believed to reduce the production of the toxic amyloid beta in favor of shorter forms of the peptide.[9] Negative results were announced regarding tarenflurbil in July 2008 and further development was canceled.

PBT2 is an 8-hydroxy quinoline that removes copper and zinc from cerebrospinal fluid, which are held to be necessary catalysts for amyloid beta aggregation.[10] This drug has been in a Phase II trial for early Alzheimers and which has reported preliminarily promising, but not detailed, results.

Simvastatin, a statin, stimulates brain vascular endothelial cells to create a beta-amyloid ejector.[11] The use of this statin may have a causal relationship to decreased development of the disease.[12]

This approach is based on the prominent aspect of Alzheimer's disease, which is common for many other neurodegenerative diseases: energy deficit. It has first been noted for the case of insulin insufficiency in the brain of Alzheimer's patients. Because of that Alzheimer's disease has been called "Type 3 diabetes" [13] and the insulin modification therapies are in pharmaceutical's pipelines.

Several other pharmaceuticals are under investigation to treat Alzheimer's disease.

Allopregnanolone has been identified as a potential drug agent. Levels of neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone decline in the brain in old age and AD.[14] Allopregnanolone has been shown to aid the neurogenesis that reverses cognitive deficits in a mouse model of AD.[15]

A retrospective analysis of five million patient records with the US Department of Veterans Affairs system found that different types of commonly used anti-hypertensive medications had very different AD outcomes. Those patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were 3540% less likely to develop AD than those using other anti-hypertensives.[16]

Only one clinical trial is being done (at McMaster University) to investigate the efficacy of antibiotic therapy.[17] The authors of the study indicated that it was effective in delaying the progress of the disease: "In conclusion, a 3-month course of doxycycline and rifampin reduced cognitive worsening at 6 months of follow-up in patients with mild to moderate AD."[18] A re-examination of the same data using: "...AUC analysis of the pooled index showed significant treatment effect over the 12-month period".[19]

Several studies using minocycline and doxycycline, in an animal model of Alzheimer's Disease, have indicated that minocycline[20][21] and doxycycline[22][23] exerts a protective effect in preventing neuron death and slowing the onset of the disease.

The possibility that AD could be treated with antiviral medication is suggested by a study showing colocation of herpes simplex virus with amyloid plaques.[24]

The endocannabinoid system may have a role in AD.[25][26] For instance, THC, one of the active ingredients in marijuana, has been show to reduce amyloid beta plaque formation through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE).[27]

Also in July 2008 results were announced of a study in which an antihistamine that was formerly available in Russia, Dimebon, was given to a group of AD patients. The group receiving Dimebon improved somewhat over the 6 months of the study (and this continued for the next six months), whereas those on placebo deteriorated.[28] Unfortunately the consecutive phase-III trial failed to show significant positive effects in the primary and secondary endpoints.[29] The sponsors acknowledged in March 2010 that initial results of the phase III trial showed that while the drug had been well tolerated, its outcomes did not significantly differ from the placebo control.[30]

Etanercept is being studied in Alzheimer's disease.[31] Its use is controversial.[32][33]

Recent studies suggest an association between insulin resistance and AD (fat cell sensitivity to insulin can decline with aging): In clinical trials, a certain insulin sensitizer called "rosiglitazone" improved cognition in a subset of AD patients;[34][35] in vitro, beneficial effects of Rosiglitazone on primary cortical rat neurons have been demonstrated.[36][37] Initial research suggests intranasal insulin, increasing insulin levels in the brain with minimal insulin increase in the rest of the body, might also be utilized.[38] Preclinical studies show that insulin clears soluble beta-amyloid from the brain within minutes after a systemic injection in diabetic transgenic mice modeling AD.[39]

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved an intranasal insulin device.[40]

In July 2008, researchers announced positive results from methylthioninium chloride (MTC), (trade name: Rember) a drug that dissolved Tau polymers. Phase II results indicate that it is the first therapy that has success in modifying the course of disease in mild to moderate AD.[41][42]

Originally considered an enigmatic protein, the sigma-1 receptor has been identified as a unique ligand-regulated molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. This discovery led to the review of many proposed roles of this receptor in many neurological diseases including Alzheimer's.[43][44]

A 2013 study showed that translocator protein can prevent and partially treat Alzheimer's disease in mice.[45][46]

Positive preliminary results in rats with a non-invasive ultrasound technology aimed to clear the brain of amyloid plaques were reported in Science Translational Medicine. An Australian team describes the strategy as beaming ultrasound into the brain tissue.[70] By oscillating at high frequencies, the sound waves combined with blood-borne microbubbles are able to open up the blood-brain barrier,[71] so diminishing the brain defenses for some hours - an interval in which they stimulate the brains microglial cells into activation (and, also, give drugs or the immune system access to the brain).[72] The team reports having observed an important clearing out in the beta-amyloid clumps, a change attributed to the microglial cells since their function is basically connected with waste-removal; and full restoration of the lost memory and cognitive functions in 75 percent of the mice they tested it on, without concomitant damage to the brain parenchyma (either in the tissue that was surrounding the beta-amyloid plates, or elsewhere). The treated mice are reported to have displayed improved performance in three memory tasks - a maze, a test to make them to recognise new objects, and one to make them to remember the places they should avoid. On these results, the team is planning on starting trials with higher animal models, such as sheep and monkeys, for eventually to have human trials underway in 2017.[73]

Recent studies have shown that people with AD had decreased glutamate (Glu) as well as decreased Glu/creatine (Cr), Glu/myo-inositol (mI), Glu/N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and NAA/Cr ratios compared to normal people. Both decreased NAA/Cr and decreased hippocampal glutamate may be an early indicator of AD.[74]

Early research using a small cohort of Alzheimer's disease patients may have identified autoantibody markers for AD. The applicability of these markers is unknown.[75]

A small human study in 2011 found that monitoring blood dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) variations in response to an oxidative stress could be a useful proxy test: the subjects with MCI did not have a DHEA variation, while the healthy controls did.[76]

A 2013 study on 202 people at the Saarland University in Germany found 12 microRNAs in the blood were 93% accurate in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.[77]

A scanning ultrasound treatment fully restores memory function in 75% of an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-.[78]

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Alzheimer's disease research - Wikipedia, the free ...

Alzheimer’s Disease — Yes, It’s Preventable!

Posted: at 8:45 am


By Dr. Mercola

An estimated 5.4 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease, a severe form of dementia,1 and hundreds of thousands more may suffer from an often misdiagnosed subtype called "hippocampal sparing" Alzheimer's, according to recent findings.2

The most recent data3,4 suggests that well over half a million Americans die from Alzheimer's disease each year, making it the third leading cause of death in the US, right behind heart disease and cancer.

As discussed by Dr. Danielle Ofri in a recent New York Times blog,5 losing your mind, and with it, much of your personality and dignity, is a terrifying proposition. Making matters worse, many doctors shy away from addressing dementiaboth with colleagues and their patients.

The reasons are many. Dr. Ofri suggests Alzheimer's strikes at the emotional heart of many clinicians, whose careers depend on the stability and functioning of their own minds and intelligence. In short, it frightens them too much to talk about it.

However, I strongly disagree with her commentary on the lack of strategies to prevent or modify the course of Alzheimer's.

"I suspect... that our reticence stems from deeper issues," Dr. Ofri writes. "All the top 10 killers in America are potentially preventable, or at least modifiable all except dementia... We have tests to screen for many cancers, and treatments that prolong life... But there's nothing, really, that we can do about dementia.

There aren't any screening tests that can pick up the disease before symptoms appear. And even if there were, there aren't any treatments that make a substantial difference.

For doctors, this is profoundly frustrating. No wonder dementia gets pushed onto the back burner. In the dishearteningly limited time of a medical visit, we're forced to focus on the diseases we can treat."

On the contrary, while early diagnostic tests are in short supply and successful treatments are virtually nonexistent, the evidence shows there's plenty of hope when it comes to prevention!

This is exactly why doctors need to get with the program and start directing their patients toward healthier lifestyles rather than fall into the trap of thinking the situation is hopeless and their patients are helpless victims.

I firmly believe that since there's no conventional cure, now or in the foreseeable future, the issue of prevention is absolutely critical if you want to avoid becoming an Alzheimer's statistic.

Ideally, doctors would begin counseling patients who are in their 20s and 30s on lifestyle strategies that promote heart and brain health throughout life. Then we would probably see a major shift in Alzheimer's statistics for that generation.

As it stands, the evidence points to lifestyle factors, primarily diet, as the driving forces of dementia. There are also many connections between Alzheimer's and other dietary-related diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease, suggesting that ALL of these diseases are preventable through identical means.

For example, previous research suggests diabetics have a doubled risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease was even tentatively dubbed "type 3 diabetes" in 2005, when researchers discovered that your brain produces insulin that is necessary for the survival of your brain cells.

They found that a toxic protein called ADDL removes insulin receptors from nerve cells, thereby rendering those neurons insulin resistant, and as ADDLs accumulate, your memory begins to deteriorate. Recent research also points out that heart disease increases your odds of developing Alzheimer's. As reported by MedicineNet.com:6

"Researchers found that artery stiffness -- a condition called atherosclerosis -- is associated with the buildup of beta-amyloid plaque in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease."

'This is more than just another example of how heart health relates to brain health. It is a signal that the process of vascular aging may predispose the brain to increased amyloid plaque buildup,' said lead researcher Timothy Hughes...

Plaque builds with age and appears to worsen in those with stiffer arteries, he said. 'Finding and preventing the causes of plaque buildup is going to be an essential factor in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and extending brain health throughout life,' Hughes added."

In related news, research7,8 presented at the 2014 American Academy of Neurology's meeting in Pennsylvania sheds new light on Alzheimer's cases that are often misdiagnosed. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic believe they have identified a variant of the disease, referred to as "hippocampal sparing" Alzheimer's, which is thought to affect an estimated 600,000 Americans. As explained by Medical News Today:9

"All subtypes of Alzheimer's have two specific hallmarks in the brain. Amyloid beta is responsible for the formation of brain plaques, while tau produces tangles in the brain. In order to classify each subtype, the team used tangle counts to create a mathematical algorithm.

They found that while all Alzheimer's subtypes had the same amount of amyloid beta, the hippocampal sparing variant showed tau tangles in unequal areas of the hippocampus. They discovered that in patients with this subtype, tau specifically damages neurons in areas of the brain associated with behavior, motor recognition and awareness, and use of speech and vision."

Of the more than 1,800 Alzheimer's patients included in the study, 11 percent were found to have hippocampal sparing Alzheimer's, which does not destroy memory to the degree typically associated with Alzheimer's. Instead, this subtype of the disease tends to alter behavior, causing uncontrollable anger, visual impairments, speech problems, and the feeling that your limbs do not belong to you. Hippocampal sparing appears to affect more men than women, and the disease tends to set in much earlier than traditional Alzheimer's. Patients with hippocampal sparing also tend to deteriorate at a fast pace.

Misdiagnosis is common, as this subtype spares your memory. Quite often these patients end up being diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia or corticobasal syndrome10 instead. The former is associated with personality changes, while the latter is a progressive neurological disorder that can involve your motor system, cognition, or both, but patients typically present language problems first, followed by motor symptoms.

While the researchers believe that currently available Alzheimer's medications may be more effective for those with hippocampal sparing Alzheimer's than those with more traditional dementia, I firmly believe that drugs are not the answer to any of these conditions. Clearly, at the heart of it all is insulin and leptin resistance, fueled by a diet too high in refined sugars, processed fructose, and grains, combined with far too little healthful fats.

Last year, and again this spring, I interviewed Dr. David Perlmutter, author of the New York Times' bestseller Grain Brain. In my view, Dr. Perlmutter is probably the leading integrative medicine neurologist in the US, and his advice is clear: Alzheimer's is preventable through proper diet. After spending years treating people's neurological symptoms, he grew increasingly frustrated with his profession's lack of ability to get to the root cause. This frustration eventually led him to investigate the role of nutrition, and he became convinced that brain dysfunction is rooted in our modern-day high-grain diet. According to Dr. Perlmutter:

"[Alzheimer's] is a preventable disease. It surprises me at my core that no one's talking about the fact that so many of these devastating neurological problems are, in fact, modifiable based upon lifestyle choicesWhat we've crystallized it down to now, in essence, is that diets that are high in sugar and carbohydrates, and similarly diets that are low in fat, are devastating to the brain.When you have a diet that has carbohydrates in it, you are paving the way for Alzheimer's disease. I want to be super clear about that. Dietary carbohydrates lead to Alzheimer's disease. It's a pretty profound statement, but it's empowering nonetheless when we realize that we control our diet. We control our choices, whether to favor fat or carbohydrates."

His book, Grain Brain, reveals how and why sugars and carbohydrates destroy your brain, and how to eat for neurological health. He notes Mayo Clinic research that reveals diets rich in carbohydrates are associated with an 89 percent increased risk for dementia while high-fat diets are associated with a 44 percent reduced risk. This combination of very little sugar and carbs, along with higher amounts of healthful fats is KEY for addressing not only Alzheimer's, but diabetes and heart disease as well.

All of these conditions are rooted in insulin and leptin resistance, and the dietary answer is identical for all of them. Understanding this can make your life easier, as you don't need to memorize the dos and don'ts for each and every disease you seek to avoid. Instead, what you need to do is shift over to a mindset that is focused on optimizing health. Disease prevention then becomes a beneficial "side effect."

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in August 2013 demonstrates that even mild elevation of blood sugara level of around 105 or 110is associated with an elevated risk for dementia. Dr. Perlmutter believes it's very important for physicians to become cognizant of this link, and to stop downplaying the risks associated with even mildly elevated blood sugar. So what is an ideal fasting blood sugar level?

Dr. Perlmutter suggests that anything over 92 or 93 is too high. He believes the ideal fasting blood sugar level is around 70-85, with 95 as the maximum. If your fasting blood sugar is over 95 mg/dl, it's definitely time to address your diet to lower it. If you're fat adapted, there's no reason to shun fasting blood sugar levels below 70, as your body is then able to tap into body fat as an energy source. According to Dr. Perlmutter:

"This notion that your brain needs sugar is really old news. Fat, specifically ketones, which your body produces by metabolizing your fat, is now called a 'brain superfuel.' There is even a pharmaceutical product; a medical food that you can write as a prescription, which raises the level of ketones or fat in the bloodstream of patients, offered up now as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Who knew? The point is the brain loves to burn fat. That's what we have to shift it over to..."

Intermittent fasting is a great tool to help "reset" your body to burn fat as its primary fuel again. Dr. Perlmutter also recommends starting off with a period of fasting, and he's particularly aggressive about it in patients who are insulin/leptin resistant. I typically recommend keeping your fasting insulin level below 3. The so-called normal, however, is anywhere from 5-25 microU per mL. As with fasting blood sugar, please do not make the mistake of thinking that the "normal" insulin range equates to optimal! As noted by Dr. Perlmutter:

"If somebody has an insulin level of 26, they need a lot of work. They need to fast; drop the carbs; add back the good fat. They need to add in some anti-glycating agents like benfotiamine and resveratrol. We need to hit these people aggressively. This is what works. This is what reduces their risk of converting to diabetes, and therefore has a huge role to play in protecting their brains."

Our ancestral diet was very high in saturated fats and virtually void of non-vegetable carbohydrates. Today, not only do we eat tremendous amounts of carbohydrates, these carbs are refined and highly processed. In the last decade, we've also shifted over to genetically engineered grains and sugar (GMO sugar beets and corn). Adding insult to injury, for the past 60 years conventional medical authorities have also warned that saturated fats cause heart disease and should be severely restricted.

This inappropriate fat phobia has undoubtedly played a significant role in the dramatic rise in dementia and other neurological disorders, because your brain cannot function properly without fats! The type of fat you eat makes all the difference in the world, though. You want to avoid all trans fats or hydrogenated fats that have been modified in such a way to extend their longevity on the grocery store shelf. This includes margarine, vegetable oils, and various butter-like spreads. Sources of healthy fats to add to your diet include:

Here's a summary run-down of diet-related strategies that will help optimize your brain function and prevent Alzheimer's:

Besides diet, there are a number of other lifestyle factors that can contribute to or hinder neurological health. The following strategies are therefore also important for any Alzheimer's prevention plan:

According to Dr. David Perlmutter, fat avoidance and carbohydrate overconsumption are at the heart of the Alzheimer's epidemic. To learn more about how you can protect your brain health by eliminating non-vegetable carbs from your diet, I highly recommend reading his book, Grain Brain. In order to reverse the Alzheimer's trend, we simply must relearn how to eat for optimal health. Processed "convenience foods" are quite literally killing us, inducing diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and dementia.

The beauty of following my optimized nutrition plan is that it helps prevent and treat virtually ALL chronic degenerative diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and Alzheimer's. Other lifestyle factors, particularly sun exposure and exercise, are also potent allies against all forms of dementia. Ideally, you'll want to carefully review the suggested guidelines above, and take steps to incorporate as many of them as you can into your daily lifestyle. The sooner you begin, the better, considering that one in nine Americans over the age of 65 end up with Alzheimer's.

Excerpt from:
Alzheimer's Disease -- Yes, It's Preventable!

Alzheimers Disease Overview, Brain Anatomy – Alzheimer’s …

Posted: at 8:45 am


Overview of Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive disorder in which brain cells (neurons) deteriorate, resulting in the loss of cognitive functions, primarily memory, judgment and reasoning, movement coordination and pattern recognition. In advanced stages of the disease, all memory and mental functioning may be lost.

The condition predominantly affects the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which lose mass and shrink (atrophy) as the disease advances.

The cerebral cortex is an extremely convoluted and complicated structure associated with the "higher" functions of the mindthought, reasoning, sensation, and motion. Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex contains areas that control certain types of activity. These areas are referred to as the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe.

The hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and in processing various forms of information as long-term memory. Damage to the hippocampus produces global amnesia.

The two most significant physical findings in the cells of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease are neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Another significant factor in AD is the greatly reduced presence of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex. Acetylcholine is necessary for cognitive function.

While some neuritic plaques, or patches, are commonly found in brains of elderly people, they appear in excessive numbers in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients. A protein called beta amyloid occupies the center of these plaques. Surrounding the protein are fragments of deteriorating neurons, especially those that produce acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter essential for processing memory and learning. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transport information or signals between neurons.

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are twisted remnants of a protein called tau, which is found inside brain cells and is essential for maintaining proper cell structure and function. An abnormality in the tau protein disrupts normal cell activity.

According to the Alzheimer's Association, about 5.2 million people in the United States suffer from Alzheimer's diseaseand two-thirds of those affected are women. The Association reports that about 3.2 million American women and 1.8 million American men over the age of 60 have Alzheimer's. Approximately 10 percent of all people over the age of 65 and as many as 50 percent of those over the age of 85 are diagnosed with the condition, which is the sixth leading cause for death in the United States.

Publication Review By: Stanley J. Swierzewski, III, M.D.

Published: 01 Jan 2000

Last Modified: 21 Jul 2015

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Alzheimers Disease Overview, Brain Anatomy - Alzheimer's ...

Anti-Aging Products and Therapies Market Analysis (2015 …

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FEATURED COMPANIES

Aging is a process of growing old or maturing including a reduction in strength, endurance, speed of reaction, agility, basal metabolism, sexual activity and hearing acuity. The bones are more brittle, the skin drier and less elastic and the teeth are shed. Ageing effects (e.g., patchy hyper-pigmentation, fine wrinkles, telangiectasias) result from intrinsic and extrinsic processes and reflect the physical effects of the passage of time. Ageing skin is usually associated with a sagging face, in which deeper tissues (i.e., subjacent soft tissue) and structural landmarks lose their resiliency. Anti-aging Products and Therapies predominantly moisturiser-based cosmeceutical skin care products marketed with the promise of making the consumer look younger by reducing, masking or preventing signs of skin aging. The market has been precisely categorized and segmented and further sub classified for understanding and procuring in-depth, logical, analytical and comprehensive analysis. The Global Anti-aging Products and Therapies market has been thoroughly scrutinized and then carefully demarcated by geographic locations which are based on major economic regions and their topographical regions. Growing completion and the changing market dynamics has been highlighted. Aggressive market players are profiled with attributes of company overview, financial overview, business strategies, product portfolio and recent developments. The Market share and Market size prominent players for 2015 are profiled in this report. The report contains the most detailed and in-depth segmentation and analysis of the Global Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market during the forecast period 2015 - 2020.

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1. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market Overview 2. Executive summary 3. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market Landscape 3.1. Market Share Analysis 3.2. Comparative Analysis 3.2.1. Product Benchmarking 3.2.2. Patent Analysis 3.2.3. Top 5 Financials Analysis 4. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market Forces 4.1. Market Drivers 4.2. Market Constraints 4.3. Market Challenges 4.4. Attractiveness of the Industry 4.4.1. Power of Suppliers 4.4.2. Power of Customers 4.4.3. Threat of New entrants 4.4.4. Threat of Substitution 4.4.5. Degree of Competition 5. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market - Strategic Analysis 5.1. Value Chain Analysis 5.2. Opportunities Analysis 5.3. Product lifecycle 5.4. Pricing Analysis 6. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market - By Active Ingredient 6.1. Retinol 6.2. Epidermal growth factors 6.3. Peptides 6.4. Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) 6.5. Co-enzyme Q10 6.6. Argirelline 6.7. Anti-oxidants 6.8. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 6.9. Vitamin C 7. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market - By Products 7.1. Natural 7.2. Multifunctional 7.3. Anti ageing 7.4. Anti - wrinkle 7.5. Anti - stretch marks 7.6. Others 8. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market - By Therapies and Services 8.1. BOTOX 8.2. Chemical peels 8.3. Injectable skin 8.4. Rejuvenation and dermal fillers 8.5. Hormone replacement therapy 8.6. Telomere based therapy 8.7. Gene therapy 8.7.1. Proteomics 8.7.2. Genomics 8.7.3. Predictive medicine 8.8. Liposuction 8.9. Sclerotherapy 8.10.Hair Restoration Services 8.11.Eye-Lid Surgery 8.12.Abdominoplasty 8.13.Anti-Pigmentation Therapy 8.14.Breast Augmentation 9. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market - By Devices 9.1. Anti-Cellulite Treatment Devices 9.2. Microderm Abrasion Devices 9.3. Laser Aesthetic Devices 9.4. Radiofrequency Devices 9.5. Others 10. Anti-aging Products and Therapies Market -Geographic Analysis 10.1.North America 10.1.1. Canada 10.1.2. Mexico 10.1.3. USA 10.1.4. Others 10.2.Europe 10.2.1. France 10.2.2. Germany 10.2.3. Italy 10.2.4. Sweden 10.2.5. U.K 10.2.6. Others 10.3.APAC 10.3.1. China 10.3.2. India 10.3.3. Japan 10.3.4. Australia 10.3.5. Others 10.4.ROW 10.4.1. South Africa 10.4.2. South America 10.4.3. Russia 10.4.4. Saudi Arabia 10.4.5. Others 11. Market Entropy 11.1.New Product Launches 11.2.M&As, Collaborations, JVs and Partnerships 12. Company profiles 12.1.Allergan Inc 12.2.Alberto Culver Company 12.3.Avon Products Inc 12.4.Beiersdorf 12.5.Bio Pharma US Corp 12.6.Bayer Schering Pharma AG 12.7.Chanel SA 12.8.Christian Dior 12.9.Clarins 12.10. Elizabeth Arden Inc 12.11. Ella Bache 12.12. Estee Lauder Inc 12.13. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd 12.14. GlaxoSmithKline Plc 12.15. General Nutrition Centers Inc 12.16. Henkel KgaA 12.17. Jan Marini Skin Research Inc 12.18. Johnson & Johnson 12.19. Janssen Pharmaceutica Products LP 12.20. Neutrogena Corporation 12.21. L'Oral SA, Merck & Company Inc 12.22. NeoStrata Company Inc 12.23. Novartis International AG 12.24. Orlane SA 12.25. Procter & Gamble 12.26. Revlon Inc 12.27. Robanda International 12.28. Unilever PLC 12.29. Valeant Pharmaceuticals International 12.30. Woodridge Labs Inc 13. Appendix 13.1.Abbreviations 13.2.Sources 13.3.Research Methodology 13.4.Bibliography 13.5.Compilation of Expert Insights 13.6.Disclaimer

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Allergan Inc Alberto Culver Company Avon Products Inc Beiersdorf Bio Pharma US Corp Bayer Schering Pharma AG Chanel SA Christian Dior Clarins Elizabeth Arden Inc Ella Bache Estee Lauder Inc FHoffmann-La Roche Ltd GlaxoSmithKline Plc General Nutrition Centers Inc Henkel KgaA Jan Marini Skin Research Inc Johnson & Johnson Janssen Pharmaceutica Products LP Neutrogena Corporation L'Oral SA, Merck & Company Inc NeoStrata Company Inc Novartis International AG Orlane SA Procter & Gamble Revlon Inc Robanda International Unilever PLC Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Woodridge Labs Inc

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Anti-Aging Products and Therapies Market Analysis (2015 ...

The Anti Aging Skin Care Promise WebMD

Posted: August 15, 2015 at 6:41 am


From magazines and newspapers to web pages and online blogs, it is hard to miss the promises being made for products designed for beauty and skin care. And the most tantalizing promises of all? Those that touch not just our vanity, but also our fears of growing old.

Its an approach that seems to be working. According to Euromonitor International, anti-aging products now account for close to 9.8 billion dollars of the skin care market. Thats a nearly 109% increase since 1997.

But is the drive to deliver on the promise of still more hope in a jar bringing us any closer to finding the fountain of youth? The answer, it seems, depends on whether you are looking for a trickle or a gusher.

A lot of satisfaction has to do with the condition of your skin before you start an anti-aging treatment, says NYU Medical Center dermatologist Sumayah Jamal, MD. If you have pretty much never used anything on your face, she says, you are probably more likely to see results simply because you are doing something for your skin.

And that observation, in fact, may explain at least some of the reported differences in effectiveness differences recently highlighted in a Consumer Reports investigation. Researchers found the current crop of anti-aging creams fall short of delivering on their promises a conclusion shared by at least some doctors.

Many of these products are claiming changes in the skin that would automatically classify them as drugs, says NYU professor and dermatologist Rhoda Narins, MD. And they are not [drugs]. So it's clear they likely can't do all they say they do.

But is it possible that the upcoming crop of skin care miracles may actually be closer to delivering miraculous results? Some doctors believe there are intriguing possibilities on the horizon.

Theantioxidant anti-aging promise

One of the major ways skin ages is through a loss of collagen. Collagen is a naturally occurring substance that helps keep skin looking plump, lifted, and line-free. Although Jamal says we lose some collagen because of the natural aging process, an even greater amount can be lost through environmental assaults, particularly sun exposure and pollution.

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The Anti Aging Skin Care Promise WebMD

Anti-Aging – SkinCancer.org – Skin Cancer Foundation

Posted: at 6:41 am


There are many treatments available to combat the aging effects of the sun, from creams to peels to

Soft, shiny hair: what everyone wants, but few have. Did you know that "taking care" of

Dermatologist and author Doris Day, MD offers her "ageless skin care regimen, " incorporating

If you think facial resurfacing procedures are just cosmetic, think again. Facial resurfacing

Fall is officially upon us, and winter is just a chill away. Though summer is long gone, for many

Everyone should see a dermatologist once a year. Spring is a great time to go, to get advice on sun

When you think about protecting your skin from the sun, what comes first to mind? Your face? Your

by Ahmet Altiner, MD, and Adelle Quintana, MD Not all lights are created equal. Some

By Farah K. Ahmed Beauty may be in the eye of the beholder, but that hasn't kept scientists from

Are you concerned about wrinkles, brown spots, and leathery skin? Following some simple guidelines

Congratulations. Youve survived lifes slings and arrows, and made it to your senior

Perfectly polished, elegant nails are a sign of good grooming. But nails do more than make you

What could more purely demonstrate the effects of photodamage than a study of identical twins?

Over time, skin ages and loses its youthful appearance. Wrinkles appear around the eyes, fine lines

Skin cancer is the cancer men are most likely to face. Find out why men are at the highest

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Anti-Aging - SkinCancer.org - Skin Cancer Foundation

Anti Aging – Consumer Guide to Anti Aging and Skincare …

Posted: at 6:41 am


Are you looking for a way to slow down the effects of aging and restore a more youthful appearance? You'll need an effective strategy that combines a variety of treatment options, customized for your needs. The articles in this Consumer Guide to Anti-Aging give you a wealth of information to help you achieve and maintain a youthful appearance.

If you wondered how those wrinkles and other signs of aging creep up on you, this article helps you understand what's happening, with detailed explanations. You'll also learn some helpful steps to solve the age-old problem of aging skin.

Learn more about rejuvenating your skin.

There may be several causes of adult acne. There are also many treatments. An integrated treatment plan typically brings the most successful results. This article helps you understand the condition and the many avenues of treatment available today.

Gain a better understanding of adult acne.

Most people have heard of eczema, seborrhea, psoriasis, rosacea, and perhaps vitiligo. This article helps you understand the different varieties among these skin disorders and the treatment options available for each.

Learn more about skin disorders.

Exfoliants enable your skin to absorb moisture by removing dead skin from the surface. Newer, more supple skin grows in its place which gives you a rejuvenated appearance. Exfoliants can smooth the skin, stimulate collagen production, and get rid of wrinkles.

Freshen up your understanding of exfoliants.

As you lose moisture, your skin appears rough, dry, and aged. While drinking a lot of water is important, using a moisturizer with less water is also important. Oil-based moisturizers protect your skin's natural moisture, keeping it looking fresh and supple.

Glean more moisturizer information.

Free radicals are hyperactive molecules that age your skin by damaging your tissues, protein bonds and cells. Free radicals also interfere with your muscles and your immune system, causing wrinkles, sagging skin, and a dull, rough complexion. Antioxidants may help improve these conditions while affording you many options in your strategy to combat free radicals.

Defend yourself with antioxidants.

Most people know that vitamin C bolsters the immune system against colds and flu. But did you know that vitamin C also helps produce collagen, an essential skin protein? It's also an effective antioxidant, which helps combat the effects of aging.

Build your knowledge of vitamin C.

Initially a treatment for acne, Retin-A is now widely used for general skin-quality enhancement. It is also used by surgeons as a preparation for various other skin procedures. This article looks at the many uses for Retin-A and how it works.

Get an "A" in Retin-A.

Stretch marks result when the dermal and epidermal skin layers lose elasticity, after being excessively stretched. The good news is that stretch marks often fade over time, especially with a good treatment strategy.

Learn more about stretch mark treatments.

Spider vein treatment, known as sclerotherapy, removes spider veins and associated symptoms permanently. Not to be confused with varicose veins, spider veins are excess veins that your body does not need. So why keep them?

Read about shedding spider veins.

A laser beam of light can free you from the tedium, frequency, expense, and pain of getting rid of unwanted hair. Laser hair removal is an attractive alternative to tweezers, shaving, and waxing.

Learn more about laser hair removal.

Facial exercises may help relax and revitalize your skin, and it is often used by estheticians and RNs prior to facials, microdermabrasion, and chemical peel treatments.

Flex your knowledge about facial exercise.

Many women, and even some men, are opting for hand rejuvenation procedures. From brightening creams and chemical peels to laser therapies and fillers that replace lost volume, these procedures are allowing more of us to keep our real age a real secret.

Learn more about hand rejuvenation

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Anti Aging - Consumer Guide to Anti Aging and Skincare ...

PRO Sports Club > Wellness > Anti Aging

Posted: at 6:41 am


You can now choose how you age! Recapture your passion, pump up your power and regain that irresistible confidence of your youth with breakthrough technology in anti-aging medicine.

Few people realize that the symptoms most doctors consider normal aging, like fatigue, poor appetite, decreased muscle mass, memory loss, lower sex drive and depression, are actually reversible through healthy dietary habits, the correct exercise, advanced nutritional supplementation and the key factor hormone optimization with Bio-Identical Hormone ReplacementTherapy. Plus, we offer Nobel Prize technology in telomere activation to stop cellular degeneration.

Hormone Replacement is not a one-size-fits-all program. Comprehensive medical testing is necessary in order to create the right balance for your body. At the Anti-Aging Center, you'll receive a complete medical evaluation to assess your present state of health including a comprehensive panel of blood tests, testing of your chromosomal health age, plus a measurement of your hormones and full chemistry profile. Hormones we evaluate include: Testosterone, Progesterone, Estrogen, Cortisol, DHEA, IGF-I/GH, and Thyroid. After your test results are complete, a personalized treatment recommendation will be provided by Dr. Upton.

Join us each month for a free seminar and learn firsthand from Medical Director of the Anti-Aging Center at PRO Sports Club, Dr. Upton, how you can turn back the clock and start living your best life now. For the next seminar date, please call 425-861-6290 or email antiaging@proclub.com.

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