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Overview – Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center – Mayo …

Posted: October 30, 2015 at 10:41 pm


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AFTD's 2016 Education Conference May 13, 2016 Minneapolis, Minnesota

Details to come.

The Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center promotes research and education about Alzheimer's disease and related dementia disorders and provides care and services for dementia patients and their families.

Ultimately, researchers in the Alzheimer's center hope to delay, prevent and possibly cure Alzheimer's disease and other dementia disorders.

In creative, interdisciplinary collaboration, researchers in the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center conduct investigations that range from the molecular workings of memory to clinical trials that test new drugs to training new scientists. The Alzheimer's Center also is a leader in classifying and diagnosing different forms of early-stage cognitive changes and identifying predictive models of risk.

The center's work has led to the detection of biomarkers and advanced neuroimaging tests, in turn paving the way for potential new prevention therapies and treatments for early Alzheimer's disease.

For patients and families affected by Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia, the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center offers:

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Overview - Alzheimer's Disease Research Center - Mayo ...

Alzheimer’s disease – NHS Choices

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Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, affecting almost 500,000 people in the UK.

The term "dementia" describes a loss of mental ability associated with gradual death of brain cells.

The exact causeof Alzheimer's disease is unknown, although a number of things are thought to increase your risk of developing the condition. These include:

Read more about the causes of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive condition, which means the symptoms develop gradually and become more severe over the course ofseveral years.

The first sign of Alzheimer's disease is usually minor memory problems. For example, this could beforgetting about recent conversations or events, and forgetting the names of places and objects.

As the condition develops, memory problems become more severe andfurther symptoms can develop, such as:

Read more about the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is most common in people over the ageof65, and affects slightly more women than men.

The risk of Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementiaincreases with age,affecting an estimated one in every six people over the age of 80.

However, around1 in every 20 cases of Alzheimer's disease affects people between 40 and 65 years of age.

As the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease progress slowly, it can be difficult to recognise there is a problem. Many people feel that memory problems are simply a part of getting older.

However,an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease gives youthe best chance to prepare and plan for the future, as well as receive any treatment that may help.

If you are worried about your memory or think you may have dementia, it's a good idea to see your GP. If you're worried about someone else, you should encourage them to make an appointment and perhaps suggest that you go along with them.

Thereis no single test that can be used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Your GP will ask questions about any problems you are experiencing and may do some tests to rule out other conditions.

If Alzheimer's disease is suspected, you may be referred to a specialist to confirm the diagnosis and draw up a treatment plan.

Read more about diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.

There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease,but medication is available that can help improve some of the symptoms and slow down the development of the condition in some people.

Various other types of support are also available to help people with Alzheimer's live as independently as possible, such as making changes to your home so it's easier to move around.

Psychological treatments such as cognitive stimulation may also be offered tohelp improve your memory, problem-solving skills and language ability.

Read more about treating Alzheimer's disease.

On average, people with Alzheimer's disease live for around8 to 10 years after they start to develop symptoms. However, this can vary considerably from person to person. Some people with the condition will live longer than this, but others will not.

Alzheimer's disease is not usually the actual cause of death, but it is often a contributing factor. For example, a leading cause of death in people with Alzheimer's disease ispneumonia (lung infection), which may go untreated because people with the condition often aren't able to recognise that they're ill, or may not be able to tell someone they are feeling unwell.

As the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is not clear, there is no known way to prevent the condition. However, there are some steps you can take that may help reduce your risk or delay the onset of dementia, such as:

Taking these steps also has other health benefits, such as lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease and improving your overall mental health.

Read more about preventing Alzheimer's disease.

Page last reviewed: 26/03/2014

Next review due: 26/03/2016

Link:
Alzheimer's disease - NHS Choices

What is Alzheimer’s Disease? – Healthline

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What Is Alzheimer's Disease?

The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimers disease (AD). AD is a progressive and irreversiblebrain disorder. The actual cause of AD is unknown.AD slowly damages a persons memory, judgment, reasoning skills, personality, autonomy, and bodily functions.

The disease specifically affects several components of the brain. These include:

Its normal to sometimes forget things. As we age, it often takes longer to remember words or names, or where we left our glasses. These forgetful moments dont necessarily indicate dementia. In fact, scientists have found that healthy older adults perform just as well as their young counterparts on complex and learning tests if given extra time to complete.

Theres a difference, however, between occasional forgetfulness and behavior that may be cause for concern. Not recognizing a familiar face,trouble performing common tasks (like using the telephone or driving home), or being unable to recall recent information are red flags that need to be checked by a doctor.

Also known aslate-onset Alzheimers disease,AD is primarily a disease of older adults. The first noticeablesymptomscan occur as early as age 60.AD sometimes can affect people as young as 30. This type of AD is calledearly-onset AD.Its rare and affects less than one out of every 1,000 people with AD. When AD runs in families, its calledfamilial Alzheimers disease (FAD).

The underlyingcauses and specific risk factors for AD remain unclear. Yet experts believe AD is likely due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Lifestyle choices such as diet, exercise, and staying mentally active are also factors.

About 5.2 million Americans have AD, according to the Alzheimers Association of America. That number will only climb as the elderly population rises.

According to the same source, AD is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth leading in Americans age 65 and older.

Scientists are working to better understand AD. The goal is to create more effective earlydiagnostic tools, improve treatments, and perhaps even discover a cure.

Currently there are numerous resourcesand services for people who suffer with AD and their loved ones and caregivers. Somecurrent treatment optionseven may slow the progression of AD, but their effectiveness varies and diminishes over time.

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What is Alzheimer's Disease? - Healthline

Alzheimer’s disease | Alzheimer Society of Canada

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Home > About dementia > Alzheimer's disease

The most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's disease is irreversible and destroys brain cells, causing thinking ability and memory to deteriorate. Alzheimer's disease is not a normal part of aging.

Dr. Alois Alzheimer first identified the disease in 1906. He described the two hallmarks of the disease: "plaques," which are numerous tiny, dense deposits scattered throughout the brain that become toxic to brain cells at excessive levels, and "tangles," which interfere with vital processes, eventually choking off the living cells. When brain cells degenerate and die, the brain markedly shrinks in some regions.

The image below shows that a person with Alzheimer's disease has less brain tissue (right) than a person who does not have the disease (left). This shrinkage will continue over time, affecting how the brain functions.

MRI images courtesy of Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre

If you have been confused by these terms in the past, or mistakenly thought that they were the same thing, watch the video:

The material was created by TCD, through the NEIL Programme at the Institute of Neuroscience with support from GENIO.

2014 The Provost, Fellows, Foundations Scholars, and the Other Members of Board, of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin. Permission to use this material was granted by TCD which reserves all rights in the material.

Alzheimers disease is a fatal disease that eventually affects all aspects of a persons life: how they think, feel, and act. Each person is affected differently. It is difficult to predict symptoms, the order in which they will appear, or the speed of their progression.

The following are some of the changes you may expect as the disease progresses.

Cognitive and functional abilities: a persons ability to understand, think, remember and communicate will be affected. This could impact a persons ability to make decisions, perform simple tasks, or follow a conversation. Sometimes people lose their way, or experience confusion and memory loss, initially for recent events and eventually for long-term events.

Emotions and moods: a person may appear apathetic and lose interest in favourite hobbies. Some people become less expressive and withdrawn.

Behaviour: a person may have reactions that seem out of character. Some common reactions include repeating the same action or words, hiding possessions, physical outbursts and restlessness.

Physical abilities: the disease can affect a persons coordination and mobility, to the point of affecting their ability to perform day-to-day tasks such as eating, bathing and getting dressed.

Risk factors-how can we reduce the risk? 10 warning signs - know the signs and symptoms What is Alzheimer's disease?- brochure by the Alzheimer Society of Canada Stages of Alzheimer's disease- learn about the progression ofthe disease Shared experiences -advice from people living with Alzheimer's disease

Last Updated: 08/11/15

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Alzheimer's disease | Alzheimer Society of Canada

Alzheimer’s disease – Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

Posted: at 10:41 pm


Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a brain disease that slowly destroys brain cells. As of now, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. With time, the different symptoms of the disease become more marked. Many people die because of Alzheimer's disease. The disease affects different parts of the brain but has its worst effects on the areas of the brain that control memory, language, and thinking skills. Alzheimer's Disease is the most common form of senile dementia accounting for up to 70% of cases.

The clinical symptoms of AD usually occurs after age 65, but changes in the brain which do not cause symptoms and are caused by Alzheimer's, may begin years or in some cases decades before. Although the symptoms of AD begin in older people it is not a normal part of aging.

At this time there is no cure for Alzheimer's, but there are treatments that can help some patients with the signs and symptoms so they do not affect them as badly. There are also treatments which slow down the disease so the damage to the brain does not happen as quickly. There are also certain personal habits that people can learn which may help to delay the onset of the disease.

While it is not yet known exactly what causes Alzheimer's disease, there are a number of risk factors which may make a person more likely to get it. Some of these risk factors are genetic; changes to four different genes have been found which increase the risk.

The current lifetime risk for a 65-year-old person to get Alzheimer's disease is estimated to be at 10.5%. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States causing about 83,500 deaths a year. In 2007, there were more than 26.6 million people throughout the world who were affected by AD.[1]

Alzheimer's disease was named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist who first described the disease after studying the case of a middle-aged woman, Auguste Deter, who was a patient at a hospital in Frankfurt, Germany in 1906.[2] The disease was named Alzheimer's disease in 1910 by Dr. Emil Kraepilin a co-worker of Alzheimer.

The vesicles, which contain neurotransmitters, are brought to the end of the microtubule inside the neuron's (brain cell) axon to the synapse, to send a signal to the dendrite of the next neuron.

The two strands 'walking' down the microtubule is a motor protein called kinesin. The kinesin is carrying a vesicle on top, with the neurotransmitters inside. It cannot finish its job because the microtubule has fallen apart. The pieces of hyperphosphorylated tau form tangles inside the neuron. The neuron eventually dies and the tangle is all that remains.

Two of the main features found in the brains of people with of Alzheimer's disease, are neurobrillary tangles ('tangles' for short), which are made up of a protein called tau, and senile plaques (which are made mostly from another protein called beta-amyloid, they are also sometimes called beta-amyloid bundles or 'bundles' for short). The tau proteins that form the tangles previously held together a structure inside the neurons called a microtubule which is an important part of the neuron; it forms part of the cytoskeleton (cell skeleton) which is what maintains a cell's shape, and microtubules plays a part in cell communication.[3]

Both tangles and plaques may be caused by other diseases, such as Herpes simplex virus Type 1 which is being investigated as a possible cause or contributor in developing Alzheimer's. It is not known for sure if tangles and plaques are part of what causes Alzheimer's, or if they are the results.

Microtubules

Microtubules are made of a protein called tubulin. The tubulin is polymerized, which is when molecules form the same shapes over and over again that are linked together in groups, and these groups are linked together. They can form long chains or other shapes; in this case the polymerized tubulin forms microtubules. The microtubules are rigid tubes like microscopic straws which are hollow inside. Microtubules help keep the shape of the neuron, and are inolved in passing signals through the neuron.[4]

Tau

Tau is a protein that is found mostly in the neurons of the central nervous system. They help hold together the microtubules within the neurons. and when changes happen in the way the tau proteins are supposed to work the microtubules break apart. The tau proteins which are no longer holding the microtubules together form strands called fibrils, which then clump together inside the neuron to make what are called neurofibrillary tangles . These clumps, also known as 'tau tangles', are all that remain after a neuron has died.[5]

Beta-amyloid

Beta-amyloid(A) (also called 'amyloid beta') plaques start with a protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is one of the proteins that make up a cell's membrane or outer covering, that protects the cell. In this case a neuron.. As it is made inside the cell, APP sticks out through the membrane of the cell.

The arterial wall has three layers. In cerebral amyloid angiopathy, beta-amyloid accumulates in the middle layer, the tunica media, and the outer layer, the tunica externa.

MRI scan showing Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The beta-amyloid deposits show up as black 'dots' spread throughout the brain's outer layer, the cerebral cortex.

In different parts of the of cell including the outermost part of the cell membrane, chemicals called enzymes snip, the APP into small pieces. These enzymes that do the snipping are alpha-secretase, beta-secretase, and gamma-secretase. Depending on which enzyme is doing the snipping and what parts of the APP are snipped, two different things can happen. One that is helpful and one that causes the formation of beta-amyloid plaques.

The plaques are formed when beta-secretase snips the APP molecule at one end of the beta-amyloid peptide, releasing sAPP from the cell. Gamma-secretase then cuts the pieces of APP that is left and, still sticking out of the neurons membrane, at the other end of the beta-amyloid peptide. After this snipping the beta-amyloid peptide is released into the space outside the neuron and begins to stick to other beta-amyloid peptides. These pieces stick together to form oligomers. Different sizes of these oligomers which are now floaing around in the spaces between the neurons may be responsible for reacting with receptors on neighboring cells and synapses, affecting their ability to function.

Some of these oligomers are probably cleared from the brain. Those that are not cleared out clump together with more pieces of beta-amyloid. As more pieces clump togther the oligomers get bigger larger, and the next size up are called protofibrils and the next size after that are called fibrils. After awhile these fibrils clump together with other protein molecules, neurons and non-nerve cells floating around in the space between the cells and form what are called plaques.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)

Deposits of beta-amyloid also form in the walls (in the tunica media, the middle layer, and tunica adventitia or tunica externa, the outer layer) of small and mid-sized arteries (and sometimes veins) in the cerebral cortex and the leptomeninges (the leptomeninges are the two inner layers - pia mater and arachnoid - of the meninges, a protective 3-layer membrane covering the brain.)

CAA is found in 30% of people over the age of 60 years who do not have any dementia but is found in 90%-96% of people with Alzheimer disease and is severe in one third to two thirds of these cases.[7]

The first area of the brain to be affected by Alzheimer's is the "transentorhinal region"[8] which is part of the medial temporal lobe located deep within the brain. Neurons start dying in this area first. It then spreads into the adjacent entorhinal cortex (EC) which acts as a central hub, for a widespread network that handles signals for memory and movement[9](like a main train station with train tracks going to different areas).

The EC is the main area for communication between the hippocampus, and the neocortex - which is the outer portion of the brain responsible for higher functioning such as how the brain perceives information from the five senses; (smell, sight, taste, touch and hearing; Ex. seeing a person's face and recognizing them,) generating motor commands (Ex, moving and arm or leg, walking, running) spatial reasoning, conscious thought and language.

The disease then spreads into the hippocampus which is part of the limbic system. The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in forming new memories, organizing them, and storing them for later recall. It is also where emotions and senses, such as smell and sound are attached to specific memories. Example 1.: A memory might make you happy or sad. Example 2.: A smell might bring up a certain memory.

The hippocampus then sends memories to the different parts of the cerebral hemisphere where they are placed in long-term storage and it helps retrieve them when necessary. Example: An adult trying to remember the name of a classmate from kindergarten.

In addition to handling memory the hippocampus is also involved in emotional responses, navigation (getting around) and spatial orientation (knowing your sense of place as you move around Example: Knowing your way around your bedroom even with the lights off).

There are actually two parts of the hippocampus which is shaped like a horseshoe with one in the left part of the brain and the other in the right part of the brain.

Preclinical

Red Blue Green Purple Orange Purple Orange Green Blue Red

Blue Orange Purple Green Red Purple Green Red Blue Orange

The Stroop ColorWord Test

This is a short example of the test. The test is used to measure different cognitive functions such as selective attention.

Naming the colors of the first set of words is easier and quicker than the second, because in the first set, the colors match the words, in the second set they do not. So a person has to pay more attention.

With current research using advances in neuroimaging such as FDG-PET and PIB-PET scans, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays, it is now possible to detect the beginning processes of Alzheimer's disease that occur before symptoms begin. The research suggests that clinically normal older people (no symptoms at all) have biomarker evidence of amyloid beta (A) build-up in the brain. This amyloid beta (A) is linked to changes in the structure of the brain and how it works that is the similar to what is seen in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) - which may lead to Alzheimer's - and people with Alzheimer's.

These small preclinical changes (no symptoms) in the brain may occur many years, to even a few decades before a person is diagnosed with Alzheimer's. With a stage where there is some memory loss, or mild cognitive impairment. These changes put a person at risk of developing the clinical symptoms of full-blown Alzheimer's but not everyone who has these changes will get the disease. Even though there is no cure for Alzheimer's, there are new treatments which are being developed which would work better in the very first stages of the disease.[12]

At this time exactly what makes up the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's is still being researched, such as why some people with go on to develop Alzheimer's and others do not. So the term preclinical phase is being used for research only. There is a worldwide effort in various countries doing research in this area known as the World Wide Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (WW-ADNI) which is the umbrella organization for neuroimaging studies being carried out through the North American ADNI, European ADNI (E-ADNI), Japan ADNI, Australian ADNI (AIBL), Taiwan ADNI, Korea ADNI, China ADNI and Argentina ADNI.[13]

Beginning stages

"Misdiagnosis in very early stages of Alzheimer's is a significant problem, as there are more than 100 conditions that can mimic the disease. In people with mild memory complaints, our accuracy is barely better than chance," according to study researcher P. Murali Doraiswamy, MBBS, professor of psychiatry and medicine at Duke Medicine, "Given that the definitive gold standard for diagnosing Alzheimer's is autopsy, we need a better way to look into the brain."

In 1901, a 51-year-old woman named Auguste Deter, was committed to the City Asylum for the Insane and Epileptic, (Stdtischen Anstalt fr Irre und Epileptische) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany which had the nickname "Irrenschloss" (Castle of the Insane). She was married and had a normal life until eight months prior to her commitment, when she started having psychological and neurological problems, such as problems with memory and language, paranoia, becoming disorientated and having hallucinations.

She was studied by a doctor on staff named Alois Alzheimer (18641915). Alzheimer became interested in her case because of her age; while the effects of senile dementia were known at the time, they usually did not start until a person was in their early to mid-sixties. Her case was also notable because of the rapid onset of dementia, only eight months, from the first reported symptoms, until she was committed.

While conducting one of his examinations of Ms. Deter, he asked her to perform a series of simple writing tasks. Unable to do what was asked such as write her name, she said "I have lost myself, so to speak" ("Ich habe mich sozusagen selbst verloren").

Alzheimer left the hospital in Franfkurt in 1902 to begin working with Emil Kraepelin at the Psychiatric University Hospital in Heidelberg-Bergheim, and in 1903 both he and Kraepelin began working at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich.

When Ms. Deter died of septicemia on 8 April 1906, Alzheimer was informed and her brain was sent to Munich for him to study. Studying samples of her brain under a microscope he noticed neurofibriallry tangles and bundles made up of beta-amyloid plaque, which are two of the main features of the disease. On 3 November 1906, Alzheimer presented the results of his findings in Auguste's case at the Conference of South-West German Psychiatrists in Tbingen, and he published his findings in the case in 1907.

In 1910, Emil Kraepelin named the disease 'Alzheimer's disease'. Alzheimer's disease usually beigins affecting people between ages 6065, in Ms. Deter's case - who was 55-years-old when she died - she had a form of what is now known as Early-onset Alzhiemer's disease.[14]

Anyone can get Alzheimer's disease, rich people or poor famous people and unfamous people. Some of the famous people who have gotten Alzheimer's disease are former United States President Ronald Reagan and Irish writer Iris Murdoch, both of whom were the subjects of scientific articles examining how their cognitive capacities got worse with the disease.[15][16][17]

Other cases include the retired footballer Ferenc Pusks,[18] the former Prime Ministers Harold Wilson (United Kingdom) and Adolfo Surez (Spain),[19][20] the actress Rita Hayworth,[21] the Nobel Prize-winner Raymond Davis, Jr.,[22] the actor Charlton Heston,[23] the novelist Terry Pratchett,[24] the Blues musician B.B. King,[25] Indian politician George Fernandes,[26] and the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics recipient Charles K. Kao.[27] In 2012, Nobel Prize writer Gabriel Garca Mrquez was diagnosed with the disease.[28]

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Alzheimer's disease - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

Alzheimer’s Disease – Learn Genetics

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HOME

Genetic Disorders

Multifactorial Disorders

Alzheimer's is a disease that causes dementia, or loss of brain function. It affects the parts of the brain that are important for memory, thought, and language.

The brain of a person with Alzheimer's contains abnormal clumps of cellular debris and protein (plaques) and collapsed microtubules (support structures inside the cell). Microtubule collapse is caused by a malfunctioning protein called tau, which normally stabalizes the microtubules. In Alzheimer's patients, tau proteins instead cluster together to form disabling plaques and tangles. These plaques and tangles damage the healthy cells around them, leading to cell death. The brain also produces smaller amounts of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine), chemicals that allow nerve cells to talk to one another.

The most common form of the disease, which strikes after age 65, is linked to the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene on chromosome 19. Scientists don't know how apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's. They do know that everyone has apoE, which comes in three forms.

One of the forms (apoE4) increases a person's risk of developing Alzheimer's. The other two forms seem to protect against the disease. While people who inherit the apoE4 form of the gene are at increased risk for the disease, they will not necessarily develop it.

Mutations in genes found on chromosomes 1, 14, and 21 are linked to rarer forms of the disease, which strike earlier in life.

Scientists don't know exactly how people develop Alzheimer's, but they believe it is caused by a combination of genes and environmental factors. In other words, it is a multifactorial disorder.

The early-onset forms of Alzheimer's are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that only one parent has to pass down a defective copy of the gene for their child to develop the disorder.

Because Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, people who have the disorder slowly lose their ability to think clearly. At first, they may forget words or names, or have trouble finding things. As the disorder worsens, they may forget how to do simple tasks, such as walking to a friend's house or brushing their hair. Some people with Alzheimer's also feel nervous or sad.

There is no single test for Alzheimer's. Doctors use several different tests to check a patient's memory, language skills, and problem solving abilities. These tests don't diagnose Alzheimer's, but they can rule out other disorders that have similar symptoms.

There is no cure for Alzheimer's, but a few medicines can slow its symptoms. A drug called Aricept increases the amount of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. Another medicine, Namenda, protects brain cells from a chemical called glutamate, which can damage nerve cells. Doctors may also give their Alzheimer's patients antidepressants or anti-anxiety medicines to ease some of their symptoms.

People with Alzheimer's often need a caregiversomeone to help them do the things they were once able to do themselves.

Alzheimer's was named after the German doctor, Alois Alzheimer, who first named the disorder in 1906.

The older a person gets, the higher his or her risk of getting Alzheimer's. Only about 1 or 2 people out of 100 have Alzheimer's at age 65; whereas, one out of every five people has the disorder by age 80.

As many as 4 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease.

APA format: Genetic Science Learning Center (2014, June 22) Alzheimer's Disease. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved October 31, 2015, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/multifactorial/alzheimers/ MLA format: Genetic Science Learning Center. "Alzheimer's Disease." Learn.Genetics 31 October 2015 <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/multifactorial/alzheimers/> Chicago format: Genetic Science Learning Center, "Alzheimer's Disease," Learn.Genetics, 22 June 2014, <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/multifactorial/alzheimers/> (31 October 2015)

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Alzheimer's Disease - Learn Genetics

Alzheimer’s Disease – In-Depth Report – NY Times Health

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In-Depth From A.D.A.M. Background

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain from which there is no recovery. The disease slowly attacks nerve cells in all parts of the cortex of the brain and some surrounding structures, thereby impairing a person's abilities to govern emotions, recognize errors and patterns, coordinate movement, and remember. Ultimately, a person with AD loses all memory and mental functioning.

Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia in people age 65 years and older. Dementia is significant loss of cognitive functions such as memory, judgment, attention, and abstract thinking.

There are three brain abnormalities that are the hallmarks of the Alzheimers disease process:

The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions.

Scientists do not know what causes Alzheimers disease. It may be a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that trigger the process in which brain nerve cells are destroyed.

Genetics certainly plays a role in early-onset Alzheimer's, a rare form of the disease that usually runs in families. Scientists are also investigating genetic targets for late-onset Alzheimer's, which is the more common form. At this time, only one gene, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been definitively linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, only a small percentage of people carry the form of ApoE that increases the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's. Other genes or combinations of genes may be involved.

Researchers have investigated various environmental factors that may play a role in Alzheimers disease or that trigger the disease process in people who have a genetic susceptibility. Some studies have suggested an association between serious head injuries in early adulthood and Alzheimers development. Lower educational level, which may decrease mental and activity and neuron stimulation, has also been investigated. To date, there does not appear to be any evidence that infections, metals, or industrial toxins cause Alzheimers disease.

Alzheimer's disease is the sixth leading cause of death in American adults. It affects more than 5 million Americans and 8 million more people worldwide. According to the U.S. Alzheimers Association, 1 in 8 people age 65 and older (and nearly 1 in 2 people over age 85) have Alzheimers disease.

Age is the primary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The number of cases of Alzheimer's disease doubles every 5 years in people over 65. By age 85, almost half of all people are afflicted. People with the disease survive, on average, half as long as similarly aged adults without the disease.

More women than men develop Alzheimers disease but this is most likely because women tend to live longer than men.

People with a family history of Alzheimer's are at higher than average risk for the disease.

Researchers are investigating whether diseases that affect the heart and vascular (blood vessel) system may increase the risk of Alzheimers disease. These conditions include high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and diabetes. There is some evidence that controlling these conditions may help prevent Alzheimers disease.

Blood pressure is the force applied against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. The pressure is determined by the force and amount of blood pumped and the size and flexibility of the arteries.

Clinical trials have evaluated numerous substances for preventing Alzheimers disease but have not found them to be helpful. They included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), statin drugs, estrogen replacement therapy, and herbal remedies such as ginkgo biloba.

However, certain lifestyle changes may help in Alzheimers disease prevention:

The early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be overlooked because they resemble signs of natural aging. However, extreme memory loss or other cognitive changes that disrupt normal life are not typical signs of aging.

Older adults who begin to notice a persistent mild memory loss of recent events may have a condition called mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI is now believed to be a significant sign of early-stage Alzheimer's in older people. Studies suggest that older individuals who experience such mild memory abnormalities can later develop Alzheimer's disease.

Patients may be aware of their symptoms or may be unaware that anything is wrong. The Alzheimers Association recommends that everyone learn these 10 warning signs of Alzheimers disease:

Alzheimers disease can only be definitely diagnosed after death when an autopsy of the brain is performed. However, doctors use a variety of tests to make a probable diagnosis of Alzheimers.

The doctor will ask questions about the patients health history, including other medical conditions they patient has, recent or past illnesses, and progressive changes in mental function, behavior, or daily activities. The doctor will ask about use of prescription drugs (it is helpful to bring a complete list of the patients medications) and lifestyle factors, including diet and use of alcohol. The doctor will evaluate the patients hearing and vision, and check blood pressure and other physical signs. A neurological test will also be conducted to check the patients reflexes, coordination, and eye movement.

Blood, urine, and possibly spinal fluid samples are collected. They can help the doctor evaluate other possible causes of dementia, such as thyroid imbalances or vitamin deficiencies.

A number of psychological tests are used to assess difficulties in attention, perception, memory, language, and problem-solving, social, and language skills. These tests can also be used to evaluate mood problems such as depression.

One commonly used test is the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), which uses a series of questions and tasks to evaluate cognitive function. For example, the patient is given a series of words and asked to recall and repeat them a few minutes later. In the clock-drawing test, the patient is given a piece of paper with a circle on it and is asked to write the numbers in the face of a clock and then to show a specific time on the clock.

Imaging tests are useful for ruling out blood clots, tumors, or other structural abnormalities in the brain that may be causing signs of dementia. These tests include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Functional and volumetric MRIs, as well as positron-emission testing (PET) scans, have some ability to predict the future course of early Alzheimer disease. However, they are often not as good or no better than clinical exam and history in predicting the course of this disease

Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia. However, other causes of dementia in the elderly can include:

Vascular Dementia. Vascular dementia is primarily caused by either multi-infarct dementia (multiple small strokes) or Binswanger's disease (which affects tiny arteries in the midbrain).

Lewy Bodies Variant. Lewy bodies are abnormalities found in the brains of patients with both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. They can also be present in the absence of either disease; in such cases, the condition is called Lewy bodies variant (LBV). In all cases, the presence of Lewy bodies is highly associated with dementia.

Parkinson's Disease. Some of the symptoms of Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers can be similar and the diseases may coexist. However, unlike in Alzheimer's, language is not usually affected in Parkinson's related dementia.

Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive disorder that affects movement, muscle control, and balance. Part of the disease process develops as cells are destroyed in certain parts of the brain stem, particularly the crescent-shaped cell mass known as the substantia nigra. Nerve cells in the substantia nigra send out fibers to tissue located in both sides of the brain. There the cells release essential neurotransmitters that help control movement and coordination.

Frontotemporal Dementia. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a term used to describe several different disorders that affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain Although some of the symptoms can overlap with Alzheimers, people who develop this condition tend to be younger than most patients with Alzheimers disease.

Other Conditions. A number of conditions, including many medications, can produce symptoms similar to Alzheimer's. These conditions include severe depression, drug abuse, thyroid disease, vitamin deficiencies, blood clots, infections, brain tumors, and various neurological or vascular disorders.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimers disease, or treatment to stop its progression or reverse the symptoms. Medications may help on a short-term basis (6 months to a few years) to slow cognitive decline. Various drug and nondrug treatments can help with behavioral symptoms, such as sleeplessness and agitation.

Alzheimers disease is classified into various stages that range from mild to moderate to severe. In the final stages of Alzheimers, the patient is unable to communicate and is completely dependent on others for care

The lifespan of patients with Alzheimer''s is generally reduced, although a patient may live anywhere from 3 - 20 years after diagnosis. The final phase of the disease may last from a few months to several years, during which time the patient becomes increasingly immobile and dysfunctional.

Telling the Patient. Often doctors will not tell patients that they have Alzheimer''s. If a patient expresses a need to know the truth, it should be disclosed. Both the caregiver and the patient can then begin to address issues that can be controlled, such as access to support groups and drug research.

Mood and Emotional Behavior. Patients display abrupt mood swings, and many become aggressive and angry. Some of this erratic behavior is caused by chemical changes in the brain. But it may also be due to the experience of losing knowledge and understanding of one''s surroundings, causing fear and frustration that patients can no longer express verbally.

The following recommendations for caregivers may help soothe patients and avoid agitation:

Although much attention is given to the negative emotions of patients with Alzheimer''s disease, some patients become extremely gentle, retaining an ability to laugh at themselves or appreciate simple visual jokes even after their verbal abilities have disappeared. Some patients may seem to be in a drug-like or "mystical" state, focusing on the present experience as their past and future slip away. Encouraging and even enjoying such states may bring some comfort to a caregiver.

There is no single Alzheimer''s personality, just as there is no single human personality. All patients must be treated as the individuals they continue to be, even after their social self has vanished.

Appearance and Cleanliness. For the caregiver, grooming the patient may be an alienating experience. For one thing, many patients resist bathing or taking a shower. Some spouses find that showering with their afflicted mate can solve the problem for a while. Often patients with Alzheimer''s disease lose their sense of color and design and will put on odd or mismatched clothing. It is important to maintain a sense of humor and perspective and to learn which battles are worth fighting and which ones are best abandoned.

Driving. As soon as Alzheimer''s is diagnosed, the patient should be prevented from driving.

Wandering. A potentially dangerous trait is the patient''s tendency to wander. At the point the patient develops this tendency, many caregivers feel it is time to seek out nursing homes or other protective institutions for their loved ones. For those who remain at home, the following precautions are recommended:

Speech Problems. Speech therapy combined with Alzheimer''s disease medications may be helpful for maintaining verbal skills in patients with mild symptoms.

Sexuality. In many cases, the patient becomes uninhibited sexually. At the same time, the patient''s physical deterioration and receding capacity to recognize the spouse as a known and loved individual can make sexual activity unattractive for the caregiving spouse. Other patients may lose interest in sex. If sexual issues are a problem, they should be discussed openly with the doctor. Ways should be found to maintain non-sexual physical affection that can bring comfort to both the patient and the spouse.

Patients with Alzheimer''s disease need 24-hour a day attention. Even if the caregiver has the resources to keep the patient at home during later stages of the disease, outside help is still essential. If available, home visits by a health profession can have a favorable impact on survival and delay the need for a nursing home.

Incontinence. Incontinence (loss of control of bowel or urine function) is generally devastating to the caregiver and a primary reason why many caregivers decide to seek nursing home placement. When the patient first shows signs of incontinence, the doctor should make sure that it is not caused by an infection. Urinary incontinence may be controlled for some time by trying to monitor times of liquid intake, feeding, and urinating. Once a schedule has been established, the caregiver may be able to anticipate incontinent episodes and get the patient to the toilet before they occur.

Immobility and Pain. As the disease progresses, patients become immobile, literally forgetting how to move. Eventually, they become almost entirely wheelchair-bound or bedridden. Bedsores can be a major problem. Sheets must be kept clean, dry, and free of food. The patient''s skin should be washed frequently, gently blotted thoroughly dry, and moisturizers applied. The patient should be moved every 2 hours and the feet kept raised with pillows or pads. Exercises should be administered to the legs and arms to keep them flexible.

Dehydration. Dehydration can become a problem. It is important to encourage fluid intake equal to 8 glasses of water daily. Coffee and tea are diuretics and will deplete fluid.

Eating Problems. Weight loss and the gradual inability to swallow are two major related problems in late-stage Alzheimer''s and are associated with an increased risk of death. Weight gain, however, is linked to a lower risk of dying. The patient can be fed through a feeding syringe, or the caregiver can encourage chewing action by pushing gently on the bottom of the patient''s chin and on the lips. The caregiver should offer the patient foods of different consistency and flavor. Because choking is a danger, the caregiver should learn to administer the Heimlich maneuver. In very late stages, some caregivers choose feeding tubes for the patient. They should be aware that feeding tubes have no measurable impact on survival.

About 80% of patients with Alzheimer''s disease are cared for by family members, who often lack adequate support, finances, or training for this difficult job. Few diseases disrupt patients and their families so completely or for so long a period of time as Alzheimer''s. The patient''s family endures two separate losses and grieves twice:

Often, caregivers themselves begin to show signs of psychological stress or ill health. Depression, empathy, exhaustion, guilt, and anger can play havoc with even a healthy individual faced with the care of a loved one suffering from Alzheimer''s.

Support services can greatly improve caretakers quality of life and make it easier for them to continue caring for patients in their homes. Such support includes individual and family counseling, telephone counseling, support groups, and stress management and problem-solving techniques. Such help may reduce the rates of depression and improve self-confidence in caregivers, and possibly enable the patient to remain in the home.

A point comes when the most devoted caregiver may need to consider institutionalizing the patient. That point is determined not only by the caregiver''s emotional endurance, but also by their physical strength and stamina, as a patient typically takes on the random, undisciplined behavior of a very young child. Financial considerations in finding a nursing home are often paramount, but the kind of care is equally important. Although fully half of all nursing home patients suffer from Alzheimer''s, not all nursing homes have programs specifically designed for them. Some institutions may claim that they do, but often they simply group patients together without offering any special programs. If a caregiver manages to find a facility that offers good services, it may be located far from home, making visits difficult. The caregiver must then decide whether superior care at a distant institution is worth seeing the patient less frequently. When the patient''s illness becomes terminal, a hospice program may be another option.

1. Although I cannot control the disease process, I need to remember I can control many aspects of how it affects my relative.

2. I need to take care of myself so that I can continue doing the things that are most important.

3. I need to simplify my lifestyle so that my time and energy are available for things that are really important at this time.

4. I need to cultivate the gift of allowing others to help me, because caring for my relative is too big a job to be done by one person.

5. I need to take one day at a time rather than worry about what may or may not happen in the future.

6. I need to structure my day because a consistent schedule makes life easier for me and my relative.

7. I need to have a sense of humor because laughter helps to put things in a more positive perspective.

8. I need to remember that my relative is not being difficult on purpose; rather their behavior and emotions are distorted by the illness.

9. I need to focus on and enjoy what my relative can still do rather than constantly lament over what is gone.

10. I need to increasingly depend upon other relationships for love and support.

11. I need to frequently remind myself that I am doing the best that I can at this very moment.

12. I need to draw upon the Higher Power, which I believe is available to me.

Source: The American Journal of Alzheimer''s Care and Related Disorders & Research, Nov/Dec 1989

Most drugs used to treat Alzheimer's, and those under investigation, are aimed at slowing progression. There are no cures to date. In addition, the improvements from some of these drugs may be so modest that patients and their families may not notice benefit.

There are currently two drug classes that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease:

All of the drugs currently approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease are expensive. While there are generally no serious risks associated with these medications, these drugs can have a number of bothersome side effects, including indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, muscle cramps, and fatigue.

Patients and caregivers should ask their doctors the following questions about when and if to use these drugs:

Cholinesterase inhibitors are designed to protect the cholinergic system, which is essential for memory and learning and is progressively destroyed in Alzheimer's. These drugs work by preventing the breakdown of the brain chemical acetylcholine and are recommended for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's. The first cholinesterase inhibitor, tacrine, was approved in 1993 but is rarely prescribed today due to safety concerns. The three most commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors are donepezil (approved in 1996), rivastigmine (approved in 2000), and galantamine (approved in 2001).

Cholinesterase inhibitors may increase the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding or ulcers, and patients should be cautious about using these medicines with NSAIDs (which can also cause gastric irritation). Common side effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, especially when taken at higher doses, may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and upset stomach.

Comparative studies have reported little differences in effectiveness among these drugs. All drugs have gastrointestinal side effects, including nausea. Of note, some of the drugs often used in elderly Alzheimer's disease patients are known as anticholinergics and may offset the effects of the Alzheimer's disease pro-cholinergic drugs. Such drugs include antihistamines, antipsychotic drugs, and some anti-incontinence drugs.

In any case, the benefits of these drugs are far from dramatic and may often not be noticeable in everyday life. In fact, many doctors have reservations about developing any additional drugs that affect the cholinergic system since, at best, they only slow progression and do not appear to affect the basic destructive disease process. When patients go off the drugs, the deterioration continues.

Memantine (Namenda) is approved for treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimers disease. (Most cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat mild-to-moderate stages of the disease.) By blocking NDMA receptors, memantine protects against the overstimulation of glutamate, an amino acid that excites nerves and, in excess, is a powerful nerve-cell killer.

Memantine is prescribed either alone or in combination with donepezil. Studies indicate that memantine may help modestly improve cognitive function and delay the progression of Alzheimers disease for up to 1 year. Side effects are generally mild but may include dizziness, drowsiness, or fainting.

A number of drugs are being investigated for treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Intense areas of research are focusing on drugs that prevent or reduce beta amyloid build-up.

Drugs in late-stage clinical trials include:

Depression. Antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft), may be effective in relieving depression, irritability, and restlessness associated with Alzheimer's in some patients.

Apathy. Depression is often confused with apathy. An apathetic patient lacks emotions, motivation, interest, and enthusiasm while a depressed patient is generally very sad, tearful, and hopeless. Apathy may respond to stimulants, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), rather than antidepressants.

Psychosis. Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat verbally or physically aggressive behavior and hallucinations. Because older antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol (Haldol), have severe side effects, most doctors now prescribe newer atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone (Risperdal) or olanzapine (Zyprexa).

However, these newer antipsychotic drugs still can cause serious side effects, including confusion, sleepiness, and Parkinsonian-like symptoms. In addition, studies indicate that their safety risks may outweigh any possible benefits. Studies indicate that both atypical and older antipsychotics produce a slightly increased rate of death in patients with Alzheimers disease or dementia and that atypical antipsychotics work no better than placebo in controlling psychosis, aggression, and agitation in patients with Alzheimers.

Most doctors recommend delaying prescribing antipsychotic medication unless absolutely necessary. They recommend first trying behavioral treatments and controlling changes in the patients environment and routine. Anti-seizure drugs, such as carbamazepine (Tegretol) or valproate (Depakote), can also sometimes treat agitation and other psychotic symptoms.

Disturbed Sleep. Patients with Alzheimer's disease commonly experience disturbances in their sleep/wake cycles. Moderately short-acting sleeping drugs, such as temazepam (Restoril), zolpidem (Ambien), or zaleplon (Sonata), or sedating antidepressants, such as trazodone (Desyrel, Molipaxin), may be useful in managing insomnia. Some research suggests that exposure to brighter-than-normal artificial light during the day for patients with normal vision may help reset wake/sleep cycles and prevent nighttime wandering and sleeplessness. Sleep hygiene methods (regular times for meal and bed, exercise, avoiding caffeine) may also be helpful.

ADAPT Research Group, Lyketsos CG, Breitner JC, Green RC, Martin BK, Meinert C, et al. Naproxen and celecoxib do not prevent AD in early results from a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2007 May 22;68(21):1800-8. Epub 2007 Apr 25.

Aisen PS, Schneider LS, Sano M, Diaz-Arrastia R, van Dyck CH, et al. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Oct 15;300(15):1774-83.

Akomolafe A, Beiser A, Meigs JB, Au R, Green RC, Farrer LA, et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of developing Alzheimer disease: results from the Framingham Study. Arch Neurol. 2006 Nov;63(11):1551-5.

Alzheimer's Association. 2009 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2009 May;5(3):234-70.

Ayalon L, Gum AM, Feliciano L, Arean PA. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Nov 13;166(20):2182-8.

Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD003120.

Burns A, Iliffe S. Alzheimer's disease. BMJ. 2009 Feb 5;338:b158. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b158.

Burns A, Bernabei R, Bullock R, Cruz Jentoft AJ, Frolich L, Hock C, et al. Safety and efficacy of galantamine (Reminyl) in severe Alzheimer's disease (the SERAD study): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Jan; 8(1): 39-47.

DeKosky ST, Williamson JD, Fitzpatrick AL, Kronmal RA, Ives DG, Saxton JA, et al. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Nov 19;300(19):2253-62.

Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, Kok FJ, Jolles J, Katan MB, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.

Farlow MR, Cummings JL. Effective pharmacologic management of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Med. 2007 May;120(5):388-97.

Fleisher AS, Sun S, Taylor C, Ward CP, Gamst AC, Petersen RC, et al. Volumetric MRI vs clinical predictors of Alzheimer disease in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2008 Jan 15; 70(3):191-9.

Isaac MG, Quinn R, Tabet N. Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD002854.

Knopfman DS. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 425.

Lautenschlager NT, Cox KL, Flicker L, Foster JK, van Bockxmeer FM, Xiao J, et al. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Sep 3;300(9):1027-37.

Continued here:
Alzheimer's Disease - In-Depth Report - NY Times Health

What is Alzheimer’s Disease?

Posted: at 10:41 pm


Alzheimer's disease results in dementia. Illustration Alzheimer's Disease Education & Referral Center

Updated December 29, 2014.

Known by many as "the long goodbye," Alzheimer's disease is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States. An estimated 5 million people in the United States are now living with Alzheimer's, and someone is diagnosed with the disease every 72 seconds.

Most people with Alzheimer's are age 65 or older, but at least 200,000 people under the age of 65 are also living with an early-onset form of the disease.

By the year 2030, the number of individuals with Alzheimer's could approach 8 million; if scientists can't find a way to cure or prevent Alzheimer's, this number could range between 11 million and 16 million by the year 2050.

Dementia is a broader term than Alzheimer's and refers to any brain syndrome resulting in problems with memory, orientation, judgment, executive functioning, and communication.

When individuals are diagnosed with mixed dementia, more than one disease process is causing the dementia. For example, a person might have dementia due to both Alzheimer's and a stroke.

Sources:

Alzheimers disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's Association. 2007. http://www.alz.org/national/documents/report_alzfactsfigures2007.pdf

Basics of Alzheimers disease: What it is and what you can do. Alzheimer's Association. 2005. http://www.alz.org/national/documents/brochure_basicsofalz_low.pdf

Journey to discovery: 2005-2006 progress report on Alzheimers disease. National Institutes of Health. 2007. http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/8726ED71-2A21-4054-8FCB-9184BACB3833/0/20062007_Progress_Report_on_Alzheimers_Disease.pdf

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What is Alzheimer's Disease?

Special Nutrition Programs: Child and Adult Care Food …

Posted: October 27, 2015 at 8:42 pm


The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is a federally funded program which is administered and funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). The purpose of the program is to ensure that eligible children and adults who attend qualifying non-residential care facilities receive nutritious meals.

To accomplish this purpose, CACFP provides reimbursement to qualified caregivers for meals and supplements (snacks) served to participants. While the FNS develops the regulations and establishes the policies needed to conduct the program, state agencies are responsible for administering the program on the State level and for assisting sponsors on the local level.

In North Carolina, the CACFP is administered by the Special Nutrition Programs Unit in the Division of Public Health, Department of Health and Human Services.

* For-profit centers are eligible to receive meal reimbursement if they receive Title XIX or Title XX funds for at least 25% of enrolled participants.

Special Nutrition Program Consultants, each with an assigned group of counties, administer the program on the local level. Consultants process applications, monitor programs and provide technical assistance through on-site visits to facilities, training of program sponsors and audit program records. Their goal is to enable and ensure that sponsors are aware of and follow the guidelines of the CACFP in order that participants receive the maximum benefits that are available to them.

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Special Nutrition Programs: Child and Adult Care Food ...

Longevity Letter | Aging is a natural disease, but a …

Posted: October 26, 2015 at 8:40 am


This process is traditionally studied in a couple of biological models like fruit flies, worms and mice. What all these species have in common is their fast aging. This is excellent for lab budgets. It is a great short-term strategy. Who has time to study species that live for decades?

But lifespan differences among species are magnitudes of order larger than any lifespan variation achieved in the lab. This is the reason for which I studied countless information resources in an attempt to gather highly specialized research into one easy-to-follow book. I wanted to see the forest among the trees. I wanted to expose the aging gap between species in an easy-to-follow and logical sequence. This book is my attempt at doing just that.

What are the mechanisms underlying the aging gap between species? I intentionally chose to write the answer to this question in plain English. Aging research is too important to hide it behind the closed doors of formal scientific jargon. This book could not have existed if green tea, libraries and the Internet were not invented. The amount of data I had to browse in order to keep the essential patterns is huge. Yet this book is not exhaustive. This is not a dry academic textbook. I tried to instill life in a topic that is hugely important for the extension of human lifespan. Only you can decide if I achieved this.

I worked for two years before I was able to finally write this post and tell you this book is now out into the world. I still cant believe that what was once a seedling idea in my brain is now a physical and digital entity part of the real world.

For a list of links with all the places you can read The aging gap between species go to this link. It will be updated as new bookshops will host it.

But wait! I have even more good news in this post!

Im organizing a Goodreads event where Im giving away 1 FREE PAPERBACK COPY to the lucky winner.

This is a FREE INTERNATIONAL GIVEAWAY so if you can access goodreads.com on your device, then you can certainly participate. The giveaway starts on the 6th of October 2015 and it will last until Halloween! (31st of October 2015)

Goodreads is one of my favorite social media websites because it is specifically for bookworms I organize there the books I read, the reviews I write and its a wonderful place full of curious and smart people. If you dont have an account there, its free to create one.

Good luck!

Who knew that creatures traditionally used by people as natural bath sponges could be the longest-living animals known?

One step further from a colony of unicellular animals, an individual sponge is a multicellular and largely immobile animal. These fascinating organisms adopted all sorts of interesting strategies in the fight for survival and they seem to have made it.

Most sponges feed by filtering food particles. Hence they live in quiet, undisturbed waters. Since water flow is so important to extracting food and oxygen, they evolved something we could only dream of: sponges are able to remold themselves. In other words, they can change their body shape according to the environment. This card allows them to mold according to their substrate, incrusting rocks and other hard surfaces such as shells and corals.

Sponges are able to change their body shape by employing two mechanisms:

The cells making up their external layers such as pinacocytes and choanocytes are not bound tightly like epithelial cells in our skin and mucosae.

Their endoskeleton called the mesophyl can be continuously remodeled by specialized cells, the lophocytes.

All this can be summed up as living on unstable ground. Yet flexibility pays off.

There are two features potentially immortal species have and sponges make no exception. They reproduce asexually and their adult somatic cells are pluripotent.

Lets take them one by one.

Sponges reproduce sexually. Most of them are hermaphrodites, the same individual producing sperm and eggs, without having true gonads. Yet they preserved the ability to reproduce asexually and they do this in 3 manners:

by fragmentation

by budding

by producing gemmules

Not all sponge fragments are able to recreate another individual from scratch. In order to do that, the fragment must contain at least these two types of cells: the collencytes which produce the mesohyl ( their endoskeleton) and archaeocytes from which all other types of cells are derived.

When times are stressful, usually when temperature drops, sponges and many other species degenerate into gemmules. These tiny survival pods stay dormant until better times come and the little creatures regenerate. Often such gemmules are retained within the parent sponge.

Asexual reproduction is not enough. Many species reproduce asexually without displaying extraordinary longevity. The three Rs come next: reorganization, rejuvenation, regeneration. Sponges have a huge advantage here: they are simple creatures. This time minimalism pays off. Sponges have no true tissues. They have between 5-10 cell types depending on the species. They have no body symmetry. A symbol of flexibility, dare I say. Most sponge cells are able to move around the body. A few of them are able to dedifferentiate transforming themselves from one type of differentiated cell into another, by-passing the usual stem cell route. There is another interesting ability in some sponge species: if you take one such animal, blend its contents and put those cells into water, they will reorganize themselves into a new sponge. How cool is that?

I previously mentioned that one fragment must contain archaeocytes in order to recreate a sponge individual. Archaeocytes are totipotent cells. They can differentiate into any type of cell the sponge needs. This ability is totally lost in species like humans which are only able to express totipotency as embryos.

Sponges lack a complex immune system like we do, yet they are able to reject grafts from other species. What is fascinating though is that sponges will accept grafts from members of their own species.

I mentioned sponges being potentially immortal. The word potentially is important here, because accidents are a part of the sponges life just like they are in our lives. They are predated upon by echinoderms, turtles and some fish.That is when they arent turned into commodities such as natural bath sponges for human use.

But sponges understand the sharing economy better than anyone. They collaborate freely with anyone that will give them an advantage in survival.

For example, theyll often team up with photosynthesizing organisms: green algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates. Whats more, glass sponges one of the three main classes of sponges, the other two being calcareous sponges and demosponges have silica spicules which conduct light into the mesohyl, the endoskeleton where the green algae live in symbiosis with the sponge. The sponge provides safety with plenty of light and the green algae provide some oxygen and organic matter as food. That looks like a fair barter to me!

Sponges will often host shrimps too. Each shrimp species of the genus Synalpheus will inhabit a different sponge species, enjoying not only safety from its host, but the larger food particles the latter cant digest.

Sponges are the animals with the maximum known lifespan. They lack any protective shell. Sponges are immobile, lacking any means of escape. But they are flexible and evolved to synthesize a variety of unusual substances which pave the way to better drugs for humans.

Their lifespan varies wildly. Some sponge species survive for only a couple of years. At the same time, some desmogens grow their spicules very slowly at a rate of 0.2mm/year. The spicules is where researchers look for the chronological age in such species. If we suppose the growth rate is constant, then a sponge with a diameter of 1 m could have at least 5,000 years old. Another Antarctic specimen is estimated to be around 15,000 years old according to its growth curve.

Sponges are fascinating organisms that can be easily grown at home, not to mention in a lab. Why arent they used as a biological model of aging or rather the lack of aging?

Anca Iovi is the author of Eat Less Live Longer: Your Practical Guide to Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition available on Amazon and several other places. If you enjoyed this article, dont forget to sign up to receive updates on her second book regarding a comparative biography of aging from the simplest to the most complex organisms known.

The biology of aging is traditionally studied in fast-living organisms such as mice, C. elegans worms and fruit flies. It is time for gerontology to focus on negligible senescence species as well such as the ocean quahog, several turtles, the red sea urchin, the naked mole rate, the rockfish and many more. Species mainly prolong their lifespan by decreasing their metabolism and/or by undergoing regeneration of their somatic tissues. Join our discussions on how species rate at different speeds and what could be the mechanisms underlining this differences!

Who should fund science? I asked this same question one year ago. Although noble and objective in theory, science is not created in a vacuum. Government-sponsored grants are fraught with slow bureaucracy and often unfair decisions on which science projects are tackled and which are not. One solution could be the use of crowdfunding websites to sponsor those much needed and innovative projects no bureaucrat is interested in.

Today we have Keith Comito as a guest, the creator of a brand new crowdfunding website dedicated to longevity research projects only!

Anca: How would you describe yourself to readers who are not familiar with your work?

Keith: I am a computer programmer by trade, with a background in both computer science and applied mathematics. The general public is probably most familiar with me through my work on prominent mobile applications such as MLB At Bat, WWE, and HBO NOW. Over the last decade I have become increasingly passionate about exploring the intersection between biology and technology, working out of the citizen science lab Genspace to create biological games, and more recently co-founding the 501(c)(3) nonprofit Life Extension Advocacy Foundation (LEAF), which runs Lifespan.io.

Anca: Biological games? Never heard of them. What are these actually?

Keith: These are games in which the motion of microscopic organisms is directed through their response to stimuli such as light or voltage gradients. Interactive systems like this are a great way to make science both familiar and exciting, as well as prompt deeper discussions about our connection to the rest of the biological world.

Anca: How did you get into crowdfunding?

Keith: I have been a fan of the concept of crowdfunding ever since sites like Kickstarter and IndieGoGo got the ball rolling, and have backed many projects over the years. My team and I created Lifespan.io because we strongly believe that centralizing longevity-focused crowdfunding efforts through such a platform will help create a powerful grassroots movement for the extension of healthy human lifespan. By democratizing relevant research, Lifespan.io can not only build a focused community of passionate donors, but also provide a gateway for the public at large to be introduced to the idea of life extension in an engaging and accessible way.

Anca: Which are the minimal requirements for posting a project on lifespan.io? Can projects be posted by anyone no matter where they live? Do they need to have any formal affiliation with institutions? What about animal research projects?

Keith: In order to be eligible a project must align with our nonprofit mission of increasing healthy human lifespan, have clearly defined goals, and results must be made open to the public (patent, publication, etc.) in a timely manner upon completion. Projects from anywhere are eligible, with the exception of any countries whose laws prohibit crowdfunding in general. A project does not need to be formally affiliated with specific institutions, and animal studies are acceptable. That being said, all projects must go through a vetting process conducted by our Executive Board and SAB to ensure the project is scientifically sound and ethically conducted.

Anca: Some crowdfunding websites allow project creators to keep all the money they received even if their funding goal was not achieved. Others dont as far as I know Kickstarter is a hit-or-miss kind of thing, so you need to be careful in setting your funding goal. What is the policy of lifespan.io?

Keith: Lifespan.io allows project creators the choice of the Fixed Funding model (all-or-nothing) or Flexible Funding (keep what you raise).

Anca: Where can readers go to find out more about you and your longevity crowdfunding website?

Keith: There is more information about myself and fellow board members on the LEAF homepage, and the best way to learn about Lifespan.io is to go to the site itself and explore how it works. We are also very active on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, so feel free to connect with us and help spread the word. Together we can #CrowdfundTheCure for aging.

By studying the processes which give these negligibly senescent creatures longer lifespans, there is the possibility that they could be recreated in humans in order to extend our own. How negligible senescence is achieved by each individual species varies, but here are five of the most common traits. The article I just posted on Life Mag is only the beginning. Youre going to find out more by the end of October when my second book The Aging Gap Between Species will be launched!

Anca Iovi is the creator of Longevity Letter and the author of Eat Less Live Longer: Your Practical Guide to Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition available on Amazon and several other places. If you enjoyed this article, dont forget to sign up to receive updates on her second book The Aging Gap Between Species regarding a comparative biography of aging from the simplest to the most complex organisms known.

Supercentenarians are a rare breed. They thrived where others periled. They overcame disasters. And yet they largely kept a smile on their face. They learnt to accept the good and the bad that life throws at them.

I spent this year and the last year researching major patterns on how other species age. But at the end of the day, aging in people is controlled by human genes which may or may not be common to other species. Hence the importance of studying the genetic differences between people displaying extraordinary longevity and people of normal lifespan with known causes of death.

Which genes protect people from cardiovascular disease?

Which of them are involved in the management of blood sugar?

Do supercentenarians accumulate lipofuscin more slowly?

Do they even have cancer?

Are supercentenarians genetically that different from the rest of us?

Did their parents enjoy long lifespans?

Supercentenarians are rare indeed it is estimated there are currently 70 of them worldwide among a population of 7 billion people. Check out this table of the 100 oldest documented people.

DNA is obtained from simple blood drawing or spit or tissue if the donor is deceased. If you know anybody over 105 years old who would like to participate in the Supercentenarian Study, please fill out this form.

Anca Iovi is the author of Eat Less Live Longer: Your Practical Guide to Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition available on Amazon and several other places. If you enjoyed this article, dont forget to sign up to receive updates on her second book regarding a comparative biography of aging from the simplest to the most complex organisms known.

I have a (not so) secret habit of setting up a monthly budget of $10 to try up something new in terms of food: a vegetable I never tried, an exotic fruit, a different type of fish, you name it. Well this month I decided to try a new tool I kept seeing on Pinterest: a spiralizer. This nifty kitchen tool turns any firm vegetable or fruit into a bunch of spaghetti. (By the way, if youre interested in CRON cherry-picked by me, follow my Eat Less, Live Longer Pinterest board I add daily new examples there.)

Im as much of a fan of Italian food as the next guy or girl next door. Only thing is that nowadays my pasta look so much more colored and with a fraction of empty calories from white flour wheat. Compare the nutrition of 100 grams of common cooked wheat pasta here with the same 100 grams of cooked squash pasta here. A huge boost in nutrition, an impressive calorie count difference. And it all adds up, because who would eat 100 g pasta only? Not me!

If you have a julienne vegetable peeler at home, you can make vegetable spaghetti without any spiralizer. Wish I saw the video below before filling my kitchen with yet another tool, no matter how little space it may occupy.

Anca Iovi is the author of Eat Less Live Longer: Your Practical Guide to Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition available on Amazon and several other places. If you enjoyed this article, dont forget to sign up to receive updates on her second book regarding a comparative biography of aging from the simplest to the most complex organisms known.

It took FDA a couple of decades to acknowledge the importance of preventing many cardiovascular deaths by administering low-dose aspirin to patients at risk.

It may take another couple of decades before it will approve Metformin in cancer and aging itself. Or is it?

According to Nature, the TAME trial Targeting Aging with Metformin will probably start soon and it will be tested in non-diabetic patients. If the FDA will approve aging as a disease, the whole field of gerontology will make major leaps.

Which pharma company is willing to invest cash in such drugs if the indication just isnt there?

This week I did the unthinkable: I got married. A very short and spontaneous trip to the seaside followed. So here I was on the shore of the Black Sea on a casual Friday with plenty of research material for the book on comparative gerontology. Yes, I always have good intentions when going on holiday.

The water was cold to touch, but I was determined to make it through and swim in the salty breeze.

Once back on the shore, still thinking about the last paper on Arctica islandica the longest-living non-colonial animal known to science I noticed the plenitude of seashells on the beach.

I counted the growth rings from a couple of them while shivering from the cold water: the number varied between 4 and 40. Each growth ring may represent a year of life or a season or any other environmental variation.

Which brought me to the next point: why is Arctica islandica, the longest-living non-colonial animal, living in the colder waters?

Who knows how many species display negligible senescence and we have no idea about it because nobody studies them.

Anca Iovi is the author of Eat Less Live Longer: Your Practical Guide to Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition available on Amazon and several other places. If you enjoyed this article, dont forget to sign up to receive updates on her second book regarding a comparative biography of aging from the simplest to the most complex organisms known.

Here is the thing: aging is a natural disease, but a disease nevertheless. This has become the motto of my site. I wish it wasnt though. I wish aging was formally recognized as a disease, because pharma companies would join forces and deliver medication that could cure it or at least postpone it.

But it aint happening. For better or for worse, aging is considered normal and so pharma companies will produce drugs for age-related diseases in the meantime. Anti-aging medicine is not recognized as a medical specialty. Yet.

There is a shortcut though. The Life Extension Foundation for example manufactures dietary supplements catered to anti-aging purposes. I dont have anything to disclaim here: theyre not paying me for anything. Ive just been following them for about an year and I am impressed with the future-thinking research projects they fund and the scientific quality of the trials they do for their dietary supplements.

This is rare. Dietary supplements according to American and European law must be safe. Drugs must be safe AND effective before being entering the market. It is this difference that makes me perceive dietary supplements as not that effective as chemical drugs.

Which doesnt stop me from using them. Here is a short list of what I use and why:

If you do, can you share what did you experience while taking them?

See the rest here:
Longevity Letter | Aging is a natural disease, but a ...

Anti-Aging – Better Homes & Gardens

Posted: at 8:40 am


Retinol: The Anti-Ager Everyone Should Be Using

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The eyes are said to be the windows to the soul. But no matter how young at...

You know the major causes for wrinkles and dull, older-looking skin -- smoke,...

Anti-aging gets even tougher when summer months hit and the suns rays take a...

There's something about a professional facial that makes your skin exude youth...

Natural and organic beauty products have come a long way from their earthy...

Freckles are cute -- they're also fleeting. The little brown flecks that come...

When it comes to wrinkle prevention, you're willing to put in the hard work,...

Black Friday? Meh. Prime Day? Nah. For beauty product junkies like me, today's...

Whether you've just launched your quest for younger looking skin or you've bee...

When it comes to aging skin, there's a lot of false information floating aroun...

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Anti-Aging - Better Homes & Gardens

How Long Will I Live? – Life Expectancy Calculator

Posted: October 25, 2015 at 12:44 am


We have been working to update the interface of the tool and integrate the latest available data into our calculations. Shortly, this version of the calculator will be replaced. The beta version of the updated calculator is available here. Feedback? Fill out this quick survey to let us know. Fill in the following form then click the button labeled "Calculate Life Expectancy". For values which you are unsure of, leave it blank or choose option 'don't know'; For zero values, enter "0", DO NOT leave them blank If you're in a hurry, try our Short life expectancy calculator.

I am year old male female white nonwhite My height is inches (NOTE!!! Only input inches: Eg. 5'8" = 68 inches) My weight is pounds I expect to have less than 10 10 to 11 more than 11 don't know years of education My family's total income for the past 12 months is dollars I expect that for most of my life I will be married not married don't know Compared to other people of the same age and sex as me, I am in the 1st (least fit) 2nd 3rd 4th 5th (fittest) don't know quintile of fitness(refer to Fitness Table) I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of heart diseases I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of prostate cancer I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of breast cancer I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of colorectal cancer I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of stomach cancer I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of lung cancer None One Two or more don't know of my first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) has a history of diabetes I do not do don't know have at least one first degree relative (parents, sibling, children) who has a history of stroke I reside in Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illnois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming don't know I have not have don't know been diagnosed with asthma I have not have don't know been diagnosed with diabetes My diastolic blood pressure (the smaller/bottom number- an average adult's is about 80) is mmHg

I smoke cigarettes per day My spouse smokes cigarettes per day I have 0 or negligible less than 1 1 2 to 3 4 or more don't know drinks per day I travel thousand miles per year in an automobile The driver of the automobile which I most frequently travel in is a male female don't know The age of the driver of the automobile which I most frequently travel in is years I do not do don't know regularly wear seat belts when travelling in a automobile The automobile which I most frequently travel in does not does don't know regularly keep to speeds appropriate to road conditions The driver of the automobile which I most frequently travel in is sometimes never don't know drunk while driving Of the 10 things listed in the Stress List, of them happened to me in the past 12 months I am a sedentary person occasional exerciser conditioning exerciser don't know I work in the mining construction transportation/public utilities agriculture/forestry/fishing public administration manufacturing retail trade services wholesale trade finance/real estate all others don't know industry My father worked in a non-manual manual don't know job My first regular occupation is a non-manual manual don't know job My current occupation is a non-manual manual don't know job Of the 5 types of food in the Dietary Diversity List, on average I consume types more less don't know than 10% of my energy intake comes from fat I am not am don't know among the 15% most depressed of the population I have had sexual partners in the past 12 months For most of my sexual encounters, I do not do don't know use condoms On average, I have hours of sleep a day

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How Long Will I Live? - Life Expectancy Calculator

Atlanta Center For Holistic & Integrative Medicine …

Posted: October 22, 2015 at 11:40 pm


Specialties

Integrative Medicine, womens health, pediatrics, living healthy

Established in 2009.

Patient centered health care, with focus on living healthy, naturally , prevention and complex medical conditions.

Physician, Best Selling Author, International Lecturer, Acupuncturist, Certified Nutritionist, Prevention/Wellness expert, Associate Professor, Emory University, Wife and Mom of a young son and daughter.

Dr. Taz Bhatia MD, a board certified physician, Founder and Medical Director of the nationally recognized Atlanta Center for Holistic and Integrative Medicine is a highly respected specialist in the practice of integrative/holistic medicine, anti aging and regenerative medicine, pediatrics, women's health and emergency medicine. She is an Assistant Professor at Emory University in Preventive/Integrative Medicine.

Dr. Taz MD is well known and highly regarded in medical circles for her unique ability to diagnose, develop and apply the appropriate protocol for a variety of individual patient needs and conditions. Taz believes the synergy between women and children's health and its ultimate impact on the health of the family is at the core of her Center's mission.

Link:
Atlanta Center For Holistic & Integrative Medicine ...

Nutrition | Define Nutrition at Dictionary.com

Posted: October 21, 2015 at 1:46 am


British Dictionary definitions for nutrition Expand

a process in animals and plants involving the intake of nutrient materials and their subsequent assimilation into the tissues related adjectives alimentary trophic

the act or process of nourishing

the study of nutrition, esp in humans

Derived Forms

nutritional, (rare) nutritionary, adjectivenutritionally, adverb

Word Origin

C16: from Late Latin ntrti, from ntrre to nourish

Word Origin and History for nutrition Expand

early 15c., from Old French nutrition (14c.) and directly from Latin nutritionem (nominative nutritio) "a nourishing," noun of action from past participle stem of nutrire "to nourish, suckle" (see nourish).

nutrition in Medicine Expand

nutrition nutrition (n-trsh'n, ny-) n.

The process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth, liberation of energy, and replacement of tissues; its successive stages include digestion, absorption, assimilation, and excretion.

The science or study that deals with food and nourishment, especially in humans.

nutrition in Science Expand

The process by which living organisms obtain food and use it for growth, metabolism, and repair. The stages of nutrition include ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation, and excretion.

The scientific study of food and nourishment, including food composition, dietary guidelines, and the roles that various nutrients have in maintaining health.

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Nutrition | Define Nutrition at Dictionary.com

NutritionExplorations.org

Posted: at 1:46 am


Welcome to Nutrition Explorations dedicated to promoting healthy eating habits and providing information about how to stay fit and prolong life. A nutritious, well-balanced diet combined with physical activity is the foundation of good health. Healthy eating means consuming high-quality proteins, carbohydrates, heart-healthy fats, vitamins, minerals and water while eliminating processed foods and saturated fats. Those who want to increase your chances of staying healthy should reduce fat in their diets. It is a well-known fact that overconsumption of fat can lead to excess weight which in its turn increases your chances of developing health problems, including heart disease, hypertension, respiratory issues, diabetes and cancer. Healthy eating also helps support the activities of day-to-day living, promotes optimal body weight and assists in disease prevention. For example, protein rebuilds injured tissue and promotes a healthy immune system while both carbohydrates and fats fuel your body. And, of course, getting vitamins and minerals is essential for support of your bodys processes. Vitamins A, C and E, for instance, act as antioxidants and B vitamins help extract energy from the foods you eat. A well balance diet should include all the nutrients necessary for healthy living. But how to figure out how much fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals do you need daily? Fortunately, there are many companies that provide healthy eating plans and dietary solutions so there is not need for counting calories. Check out GNC, IdealShape, Medifast or Dukan Diet for high quality dietary supplements, healthy meal plans, shakes and well-balanced foods that will help you achieve your weight goals and prevent disease.

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NutritionExplorations.org

Nutrition – Taco Bell

Posted: at 1:46 am


At Taco Bell, when we say were feeding peoples lives with ms, we mean it.

We make bold food you cant get anywhere else. Its food that ignites passion. Its food you want to talk about. Its food that youve got to have and cant wait to eat again. And it always delivers more for your money.

Today, we continue to provide the boldest and freshest flavors food thats customizable and fits your lifestyle, with a commitment to never compromise on flavor. Whether youre looking for meatless, made without gluten, high protein, lower calorie/lower fat, in the mood for something indulgent, or all of the above, Taco Bell has food for all.

Were also making it easier for you to learn whats in our food. We were one of the first quick service restaurants to post our full nutrition information online, and now were making it even easier to understand whats in our food. Our nutrition calculator allows you to customize and calculate your favorite order, so you can make an informed decision.

For us, its not enough that were offering affordable, craveable, innovative choices. It has to be food you feel good about, with ingredients you understand. Over the years, weve been making significant improvements to the quality of our food like reducing sodium across our menu by 15 percent since 2008. Now, were simplifying our food by removing artificial flavors and colors, and replacing them with natural alternatives by the end of 2015. Were also removing artificial trans fat, high fructose corn syrup and unsustainable palm oil from our food. And were doing it all without compromising the flavor that makes us uniquely Taco Bell.

We believe everyone deserves good food food that fits your lifestyle, ingredients that are simple to understand, and quality you can feel good about. We are proud of what weve accomplished and we remain committed to creating craveable tastes and being transparent with you.

See the article here:
Nutrition - Taco Bell

Nutrition – Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Posted: at 1:46 am


Registered dietitians work with many clinical areas and departments to ensure the Mass General community is equipped with the best nutritional care available. Our culinary experts provide more than 23,000 carefully prepared meals and snacks to patients, visitors and staff every day.

Outpatient Services

The Department of Nutrition and Food Services provides outpatient nutrition services on the hospitals main campus as well as through Mass Generals community locations.

Nutrition experts from the Department of Nutrition and Food Services aid the general public with management of specific dietary needs in many different areas, including cardiac care, diabetes and childhood and adult obesity.

They also provide nutritional care and advice about lifestyle maintenance and good nutrition, often through classes available on the hospitals main campus and at community health centers. Nutrition topics include:

Members of the community can access these outpatient services by contacting the Department of Nutrition and Food Services at 617-726-2779. In some cases, a referral from a primary care physician or specialist is necessary, and health insurance will often cover the costs of these services.

Inpatient Services

Good nutrition is a key component of recovering from surgery or illness. The Department of Nutrition and Food Services provides nutrition care, advice and education to patients while they are in the hospital and after they are discharged.

Our services are provided by a variety of staff:

Retail Food Services

The Department of Nutrition and Food Services manages eight unique retail food operations on Mass Generals main campus and in some satellite buildings, ensuring there are healthy, delicious and nutritious food options available at Mass General at any time of day.

Contact Us

Department of Nutrition and Food Services 55 Fruit Street Boston, MA 02114 Phone: 617-726-2520

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Nutrition - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Nutrition facts label – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: at 1:46 am


The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.

Most countries also release overall nutrition guides for general educational purposes. In some cases, the guides are based on different dietary targets for various nutrients than the labels on specific foods.

Australia and New Zealand use a nutritional information panel of the following format:

Servings per package:

Serving size: g

Other items are included as appropriate, and the units may be varied as appropriate (e.g. substituting ml for g, or mmol for mg in the 'Sodium' row).[2] In April 2013 the New Zealand government introduced rules around common claims made on food packaging, such as 'low in fat'.[3]

In Canada, a standardized "Nutrition Facts" label was introduced as part of regulations passed in 2003, and became mandatory for most prepackaged food products on December 12, 2005. (Smaller businesses were given until December 12, 2007 to make the information available.).[4]

Canadian regulation tightly controls the manner in which the nutrition fact table (NFT) data are laid out. There is a wide variety of possible formats for use on a given food package. A selection hierarchy is used to select among the many formats (28 main formats, and 2-7 sub formats for each). This results in standard (vertical) formats being considered for use before horizontal and linear formats. The selection hierarchy also allows the NFT to occupy no more than 15% of the physical package's available display area (ADS), but never to be smaller than a format that would be <=15% of ADS. In practice, determining the ADS of a package, and selecting the appropriate NFT format, can be a detailed calculation.

It was regulated by the Commission Directive 2008/100/EC of 28 October 2008 amending Council Directive 90/496/EEC on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs as regards recommended daily allowances, energy conversion factors and definitions.[5] A new regulation is now in force (Regulation 1169/2011).[6] Nutritional labelling becomes mandatory for most pre-packaged foods as from December 2016.

In the European Union, along the "old" rules (Directive 90/496, amended), the information (usually in panel format) is most often labelled "Nutrition Information" (or equivalent in other EU languages). An example is shown on the right. The panel is optional, but if provided, the prescribed content and format must be followed. It will always give values for a set quantity 100g (3.5oz) or 100ml (3.5impfloz; 3.4USfloz) of the product and often also for a defined "serving", as an option. First will come the energy values, in both kilocalories and kilojoules.

Then will come a breakdown of constituent elements: usually most or all of protein, carbohydrate, starch, sugar, fat, fibre and sodium. The "fat" figure is likely to be further broken down into saturated and unsaturated fat, while the "carbohydrate" figure is likely to give a subtotal for sugars. With the "new" rules, the mandatory information is: energy, fat, saturates, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt, in that particular order, with options to extend this list to: mono-unsaturates, polyunsaturates, polyols, starch, fibre, and vitamins and minerals.[6]

With regards to health claims and nutrition (composition) claims, these are harmonised in the EU through Regulation 1924/2006, amended.[7] In November 2012, the European Commission published two new regulations: Regulation (EC) No. 1047/2012 and Regulation (EC) No.1048/2012. Certain nutrition claim groups as of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 had to be changed. Moreover, the health claims associated to barley beta-gluten were amended (e.g. lowering blood cholesterol).[8][9]

Within Regulation 1924, there are legal definitions of terms such as "low fat", "high fibre", "reduced calories".[7]

All health claims have been harmonised in the European Union. They can be used if they have been approved by EFSA, the list of approved and rejected claims is available on a web site[10]

Provided the full nutrition information is shown on the packet, additional nutritional information and formats (e.g. a traffic light rating system) may be included and this falls outside the scope of regulation.

The United Kingdom regulations are given in Schedules 6 and 7 of the Food Labelling Regulations 1996.[11]

In Hong Kong nutrition facts labels are regulated by the subsidiary legislation Food and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) (Amendment: Requirements for Nutrition Labelling and Nutrition Claim) Regulation 2008.[12]

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare had, on September 19, 2008, notified the Prevention of Food Adulteration (5th Amendment) Rules, 2008, mandating packaged food manufacturers to declare on their product labels nutritional information and a mark from the F.P.O or Agmark (Companies that are responsible for checking food products) to enable consumers make informed choices while purchasing.[13] Prior to this amendment, disclosure of nutritional information was largely voluntary though many large manufacturers tend to adopt the international practice.[14]

Food products sold in Mexico use the NOM-051-SCFI-1994 "Informacin nutrimental" product labelling standard (that is very similar to "Nutrition Facts" in the U.S.). The Official Mexican Standard, or NOM (Norma Oficial Mexicana), was developed by the Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Promotion (Secretara de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, or SCFI), now a part of the Secretary of the Economy (SECOFI). It entered into effect on January 24, 1996,[15] and defines "General specifications for labelling foods and pre-bottled non-alcoholic beverages".[16]

In the United States, the Nutritional Facts label lists the percentage supplied that is recommended to be met, or to be limited, in one day of human nutrients based on a daily diet of 2,000 kilocalories (kcal).

With certain exceptions, such as foods meant for babies, the following Daily Values are used.[17] These are called Reference Daily Intake (RDI) values and were originally based on the highest 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for each nutrient in order to assure that the needs of all age and sex combinations were met.[18] These are older than the current Recommended Dietary Allowances of the Dietary Reference Intake. For vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese, the current maximum RDAs (over age and sex) are up to 50% higher than the Daily Values used in labeling, whereas for other nutrients the estimated maximal needs have gone down. As of October 2010, the only micronutrients that are required to be included on all labels are vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron.[19] To determine the nutrient levels in the foods, companies may develop or use databases, and these may be submitted voluntarily to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review.[20]

In certain cases this label is not yet required by law, so a list of ingredients should be present instead. Ingredients are listed in order from highest to lowest quantity, according to their weight.

The label was mandated for most food products under the provisions of the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA), per the recommendations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[22] It was one of several controversial actions taken during the tenure of FDA Commissioner Dr. David Kessler. The law required food companies to begin using the new food label on packaged foods beginning May 8, 1994. (Meat and poultry products were not covered by NLEA, though the U.S. Department of Agriculture proposed similar regulations for voluntary labeling of raw meat and poultry.[23]) Foods labeled before that day could use the old label. This appeared on all products in 1995. The old label was titled "Nutrition Information Per Serving" or simply, "Nutrition Information".

The label begins with a standard serving measurement, calories are listed second, and then following is a breakdown of the constituent elements. Always listed are total fat, sodium, carbohydrates and protein; the other nutrients usually shown may be suppressed, if they are zero. Usually all 15 nutrients are shown: calories, calories from fat, fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron.

Products containing less than 5g of fat show amounts rounded to the nearest 0.5g. Amounts less than 0.5g are rounded to 0g. For example, if a product contains 0.45g of trans fat per serving, and the package contains 18 servings, the label would show 0g of trans fat, even though the product actually contains a total of 8.1g of trans fat.

In addition to the nutrition label, products may display certain nutrition information or health claims on packaging. These health claims are only allowed by the FDA for "eight diet and health relationships based on proven scientific evidence", including: calcium and osteoporosis, fiber-containing grain products, fruits and vegetables and cancer, fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiberparticularly soluble fiberand the risk of coronary heart disease, fat and cancer, saturated fat and cholesterol and coronary heart disease, sodium and hypertension, and folate and neural tube defects.[24] The Institute of Medicine recommended these labels contain the most useful nutritional information for consumers: saturated fats, trans fats, sodium, calories, and serving size.[25] In January 2011, food manufacturers and grocery stores announced plans to display some of this nutrition information on processed food.[26]

The nutrition facts label currently appears on more than 6.5 billion food packages. President Bill Clinton issued an award of design excellence for the nutrition facts label in 1997 to Burkey Belser in Washington, DC.[27]

The FDA does not require any specific typeface be used in the Nutrition Facts label, mandating only that the label "utilize a single easy-to-read type style",[28] though its example label uses Helvetica.[29] However, as regulated by the FDA and the USDA, it is mandatory for certain information listed in the label to be written in English, including: name of the product, net quantity, serving size and number of servings per package, nutrition facts, ingredient list, and name of manufacturer or distributor.[30]

In 2009, a federal appellate court rejected the New York State Restaurant Associations challenge to the citys 2007 regulation requiring most major fast-food and chain restaurants to prominently display calorie information on their menus. The rule applies to restaurants that are part of chains with at least 15 establishments doing business nationally.[31]

Alcoholic beverages are under the jurisdiction of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB), and as of 2012 are not required to have a nutrition facts label. Since at least 2003, consumer groups have lobbied the TTB to require labelling disclosing relevant information.[32] Marketing terms such as "light" for beers and wines, and "table wine" do have specific requirements, and in certain cases alcohol content must be disclosed.[32]

In 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed several changes to nutrition labeling for the first time in over 20 years.[21][33] Proposed changes will include a new design requiring a beverage size of more than one serving to more accurately reflect how many calories an individual is actually consuming. The new recommendation also proposes removing calories from fat, and instead focusing on total calories and type of fats being consumed in a product. The proposed labels would also list how much sugar is added (rather than inherent) to a product, as well as declaring the amount of Vitamin D and potassium in a product.[21][34] Some of these changes sparked a major debate between the food industry and public health agencies. The proposal to indicate sugar added during food production, in particular, is being brought forward by the FDA as a measure to counter the increase in per capita sugar consumption in the US, which over the last decades has exceeded the limits recommended by scientific institutions and governmental agencies.[35][36] Major American food associations have opposed the label change, indicating "lack of merit" and "no preponderance of evidence" to justify the inclusion of sugar added in the new label.[37][38]

Original post:
Nutrition facts label - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nutrition | wellwvu | West Virginia University

Posted: at 1:46 am


The majority of college students eat fewer than three servings of fruits and vegetables per day, but the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends five to nine servings daily. Eating fruits and vegetables, or Freggies, can help with weight loss and provides a number of vital vitamins and minerals. WELLWVU is proud to introduce tweatWELL, a social network designed to increase Freggie consumption. Click here to learn more.

Have you ever walked into the dining hall and thought to yourself that there were no healthy options? Well, take a second look. Healthier choices are all around you. Need some advice on what to eat and what not to eat? Checkout this document on Making the Most out of Your Meal Plan

Understanding correct portion sizes is another way to stay on top of your nutrition. Regardless of what restaurants say, bigger isnt always better. Who knows what the right portion size is anyway? Well, here are some tricks for figuring it out on your own the next time you sit down for a meal. Click here to find out about portion distortion.

Are you eating right? If youre like most students, theres a good chance that youre not. Find out how your eating habits measure up by taking this Nutrition 101 quiz.

Decide your nutritional destiny.

Research estimates that as many as 10% of college aged women and 2% of college aged men have an eating disorder. Moreover, many more individuals suffer from unhealthy eating habits and self image concerns. This quiz may help you find out where you stand.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number that measures the relationship between your weight and height and offers some predictive estimate of your risk of weight-related disease. What is your BMI?

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Nutrition | wellwvu | West Virginia University

Nutrition – Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Posted: at 1:46 am


Proper nutrition from birth to age 2 is critical to a childs growth and development and lifelong health. (Photo Alive & Thrive/Tina Sanghvi)

The cornerstone of our strategy is our partnerships with several high-burden countriesBangladesh, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, India (with a focus on Bihar and Uttar Pradesh), and Nigeriato demonstrate what can be achieved by expanding the use of proven interventions and developing and introducing new solutions.

In each country, we work with partners to show how these interventions can be introduced and expanded in specific contexts. We also work closely with key partnersincluding Alive & Thrive, Helen Keller International, HarvestPlus, and the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN)to apply successful approaches and practices to other countries.

Despite significant research in the past few decades, knowledge about the immediate and underlying causes of unhealthy growth and development remains incomplete. We invest in research to understand the full range of causes of malnutrition, identify the right packages of interventions, and establish the best times to intervene.

We work closely with leading universitiesincluding Cornell University; Johns Hopkins University; Oxford University; University of California, Davis; and University of Coloradoto develop, test, and roll out new solutions and address the obstacles to effective implementation, particularly barriers to reaching women and girls and addressing social and gender norms.

A womens self-help group in a remote region of Rajasthan, India, produces fortified foods for distribution to mothers and young children. (Photo Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition)

Despite recent agricultural innovations, the current food system is not capable of delivering good nutrition to all. Improving nutrition and addressing dietary deficiencies requires changes across the entire food chainfrom how food is produced to how it is sold and consumed.

We work with national governmentsparticularly ministries of agriculture and healthto strengthen food systems by increasing collaboration between the agriculture and nutrition sectors; improving production and delivery of nutritious foods; using market-oriented approaches to ensuring the safety and affordability of nutritious foods; and empowering women to expand their control of resources in the home.

Better data is needed to define the problem of malnutrition, diagnose its root causes, design interventions, and track progress. In particular, many countries lack the data they need to measure progress against global nutrition targets. We are developing new tools and platforms to enable timely collection of data and improve its analysis and use. We also support global efforts to standardize the collection and monitoring of nutrition data and use evidence to develop effective policies and guidelines.

Less than 1 percent of global foreign aid is currently directed toward nutrition; national budget allocations in high-burden countries are similarly low. We work to increase domestic and donor resources for nutrition and to improve coordination to achieve long-term impact.

We work with leading organizationsincluding 1,000 Days, the Global Nutrition Report, Save the Children, Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN), Graa Machel Trust, and Action Against Hunger (Action Contre La Faim)to generate better nutrition-related evidence, policies, and advocacy efforts at the global level and in high-burden countries. By encouraging greater investment and more effective spending and donor coordination, we aim to build the political will that is needed to reduce malnutrition globally.

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Nutrition - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

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