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Functional Medicine Chiropractor in Palm Beach Gardens, FL

Posted: October 31, 2018 at 11:43 am

We can help you relieve pain andachieve vibrant healthatthe Natural Medicine Clinic in Palm Beach Gardens. Our focus is to determine the underlying cause of your condition, so we canprovide the right solutions to help you feel better and get healthy again!

We accomplish this through Nutrition and Functional Medicine, Chiropractic Care, Manual Therapy, Active Release Techniques, Functional Fitness & Vibration Training, Physical Therapyand Neuromuscular Techniques. For over 30 years, Dr. Thomas Rofrano has helped thousands ofpatients witha wide variety of conditions. Some of the more common are headaches, migraines, neck and back pain, TMJ disorder, joint pain, fatigue, anxiety, autoimmune, thyroid, adrenal and digestive issues. For an expanded list of conditions we can help you with, visit our Conditions Page.

New Patients

New Patients Call us at 561-627-5800 to schedule your initial visit which includes a Whole Body Health Analysis to determine the root cause of your condition so we canprovide clear solutions for you to get better.

To save time before you come infor your appointment, visit ourNew Patient Center to fill out the appropriate forms prior to your arrival.

Holistic Approach

Holistic Approach We combine Chiropractic Care with Functional Medicine, which emphasizes the need to evaluate the whole person. This includes the analysis of physical, nutritional, environmental, emotional, and lifestyle values. By following this holistic approach, we are able to offer you a strategic and well thought-out plan to help you feel better and get healthy.

Functional Medicine is also known as Natural Health Care, Natural Medicine, Alternative Medicine, Complementary Medicine, Integrative Medicine, Natural Healing and Holistic Medicine.

Instead of treating symptoms, we focus on getting to the root cause and balancing your bodys systems, which can result in dramatic health improvement. Give us a call today at 561-627-5800 to schedule a consultation. We would love to help you transform your health and feel good again.

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Functional Medicine Chiropractor in Palm Beach Gardens, FL

Wellington Anti-Aging Centre: Anti-Aging Specialists: Palm …

Posted: October 27, 2018 at 3:41 pm

At Wellington Anti-Aging Centre, serving Loxahatchee and Palm Beach County, Florida, our top-rated team of professionals, led by respected anti-aging expert and OB-GYN Dr. David Adler and board certified family nurse practitioner Heather Ahrens, provide state-of-the-art anti-aging treatments designed to keep patients looking and feeling their youngest, most vital self.

Our entire team brings a commitment to individualized, holistic care to its extensive array of advanced anti-aging services. These range from injectable fillers and BOTOX treatments to erase those pesky folds and wrinkles, to bio-identical hormone replacement therapy and the MonaLisa Touch vaginal laser rejuvenation system.

Every service, from our unique weight-loss programs to our assortment of skin resurfacing procedures, are customized to best meet each individual patients needs. Our goal is to help keep our clients young, both internally and externally.Let our certified specialists help you become the most beautiful you. We are dedicated to exceeding your expectations.

In addition to Wellington Anti-Aging Centre, our team proudly serves Comprehensive OB-GYN of the Palm Beaches in the same location. For OB-GYN and primary care services, please visit Comprehensive OB-GYN of the Palm Beaches here.

*Disclaimer: There is no guarantee of weight loss or anti-aging results. All bodies are different and there are numerous factors that affect appearance and weight, so results may vary for each individual. You should consult with a doctor before beginning any new diet or exercise regimen.

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Wellington Anti-Aging Centre: Anti-Aging Specialists: Palm ...

What is Anti-Aging Medicine? | Medical Advisors

Posted: at 3:41 pm

What is Anti-Aging Medicine? | Medical Advisors What is Anti-Aging Medicine? Non-Profit Trusted Source of Non-Commercial Health Information

The Original Voice of the American Academy of Anti-Aging, Preventative, and Regenerative Medicine

Anti-aging medicine is the pinnacle of biotechnology joined with advanced clinical preventive medicine. The specialty is founded on the application of advanced scientific and medical technologies for the early detection, prevention, treatment, and reversal of age-related dysfunction, disorders, and diseases. It is a healthcare model promoting innovative science and research to prolong the healthy lifespan in humans. As such, anti-aging medicine is based on principles of sound and responsible medical care that are consistent with those applied in other preventive health specialties. The anti-aging medical model aims to both extend lifespan as well as prolong healthspan -- the length of time that we are able to live productively and independently.

Anti-aging medicine is the following:

Hundreds of scientific research studies clearly prove that modest interventions in diet, exercise, nutrition and single-gene modulation in the laboratory setting beneficially and significantly impact healthy function in old-age. Many of these interventions also modify maximum lifespan by 20 to 800% as well. With over the near-daily advancements in biomedical technologies related to research specifically focused on elucidating treatments for aging-related disorders and modulating the metabolic dysfunctions associated with old age, in the imminent near-future, effective interventions will become widely available to modulate the aging process itself in humans.

Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health have found that the anti-aging lifestyle can add 24.6 more years of productive lifespan. The research team found that the longest-living Americans are Asian-American women residing in Bergen County, New Jersey USA. They live longer than any other ethnic group in the United States to an average lifespan of 91.1 years. In contrast, the Harvard team found that the shortest-living Americans are Native American populations in South Dakota, despite receiving free or low-cost government provided medical care living an average lifespan of 66.5 years. A distinguishing characteristic of the Bergen County womens longevity is that they are availing themselves of the armament of state-of-the-art biomedical technologies in advanced preventive care, including preventive screenings, early disease detection, aggressive intervention, and optimal nutrition all of which are cornerstones of the anti-aging medical model. [Bergen County, NJ is long in longevity, New York Times, September 12, 2006; Asian women in Bergen have nations top life expectancy, Free Republic, September 12, 2006.]

A first-ever study reveals the secrets of exceptional health in old age. Mark Kaplan, from Portland State University (Oregon, USA), and colleagues utilized the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3), a multidimensional measure of health status, to examine the maintenance of exceptionally good health among 2,432 elder Canadians enrolled in the Canadian National Population Health Survey, which tracked participants health for a ten-year period, 1994 to 2004. The researchers found that the most important predictors of excellent health over the entire decade were:

The team comments that: Many of these factors can be modified when you are young or middle-aged. While these findings may seem like common sense, now we have evidence of which factors contribute to exceptional health [as we age]. [Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Orpana H, Feeny D, McFarland BH, Ross N. Prevalence and factors associated with thriving in older adulthood: a 10-year population-based study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Oct;63(10):1097-104.]

Around the world, people are seeking medical guidance for ways to stay healthy, active, and vital well into their older years. As a result, the principles of the anti-aging lifestyle are gaining rapid and widespread acceptance as a framework for lifelong habits for healthy living.

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Alzheimer’s Stages & Symptoms | Alzheimer’s Association

Posted: at 3:40 pm

Alzheimer's disease typically progresses slowly in three general stages mild (early stage), moderate (middle stage), and severe (late stage). Since Alzheimer's affects people in different ways, each person will experience symptoms - or progress through Alzheimer's stages - differently.

People with cognitive changes caused by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's or another dementia. However, not all people with MCI develop Alzheimer's.

Changes in the brain related to Alzheimer's begin years before any signs of the disease. This time period, which can last for years, is referred to as preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

The stages below provide an overall idea of how abilities change once symptoms appear and should only be used as a general guide. They are separated into three different categories: mild Alzheimer's disease, moderate Alzheimer's disease and severe Alzheimer's disease. Be aware that it may be difficult to place a person with Alzheimer's in a specific stage as stages may overlap.

In the early stage of Alzheimer's, a person may function independently. He or she may still drive, work and be part of social activities. Despite this, the person may feel as if he or she is having memory lapses, such as forgetting familiar words or the location of everyday objects.

Friends, family or others close to the individual begin to notice difficulties. During a detailed medical interview, doctors may be able to detect problems in memory or concentration. Common difficulties include:

Although the onset of Alzheimer's disease cannot yet be stopped or reversed, an early diagnosis can allow a person the opportunity to live well with the disease for as long as possible and plan for the future.

Learn More

Moderate Alzheimer's is typically the longest stage and can last for many years. As the disease progresses, the person with Alzheimer's will require a greater level of care.

During the moderate stage of Alzheimer's, individuals may have greater difficulty performing tasks such as paying bills, but they may still remember significant details about their life.

At this point, symptoms will be noticeable to others and may include:

Forgetfulness of events or about one's own personal history

Feeling moody or withdrawn, especially in socially or mentally challenging situations

Being unable to recall their own address or telephone number or the high school or college from which they graduated

Confusion about where they are or what day it is

The need for help choosing proper clothing for the season or the occasion

Trouble controlling bladder and bowels in some individuals

Changes in sleep patterns, such as sleeping during the day and becoming restless at night

An increased risk of wandering and becoming lost

Personality and behavioral changes, including suspiciousness and delusions or compulsive, repetitive behavior like hand-wringing or tissue shredding

Learn more: 10 Signs of Alzheimer's Disease, Diagnosis, Diagnosed with Alzheimer's, Types ofDementia,Daily Care, Behaviors

In the final stage of this disease, individuals lose the ability to respond to their environment, to carry on a conversation and, eventually, to control movement. They may still say words or phrases, but communicating pain becomes difficult. As memory and cognitive skills continue to worsen, significant personality changes may take place and individuals need extensive help with daily activities.

At this stage, individuals may:

Need round-the-clock assistance with daily activities and personal care

Lose awareness of recent experiences as well as of their surroundings

Experience changes in physical abilities, including the ability to walk, sit and, eventually, swallow

Have increasing difficulty communicating

Become vulnerable to infections, especially pneumonia

Learn more: Late-Stage Care

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Alzheimer's Stages & Symptoms | Alzheimer's Association

Buckyballs, health and longevity state of knowledge …

Posted: October 25, 2018 at 5:41 pm

By Vince Giuliano

Image source

The popular life extension blogs have been lit up recently with exchanges related to a recent publication that reports that a homogenized solution of olive oil and C60 carbon buckyballs fed to middle age rats extends their lifespans by an average of 90%. If this result stands up it is truly amazing. Compared with other longevity interventions such as rapamycin feeding or calorie restriction which at best extend lifespans by 15-20%, the 90% figure is off the scale. So I decided to delve into the research literature to clarify what is known and what is not known about C60 carbon fullerenes as related to biological impacts and health. I report on this expedition here. I also chime in with my own hypotheses about the mechanisms through which the C60-olive oil cocktail extends rats lifespans, assuming it really does. The main points I will be documenting are:

Image source

C60 buckyball Image sourceBuckminister Fuller

What is a C60 fullerene?

From wickipedia: A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid or tube. Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and they resemble the balls used in football (association football). Cylindrical ones are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of stacked graphene sheets of linked hexagonal rings; but they may also contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings.[1] The first fullerene molecule to be discovered, and the familys namesake, buckminsterfullerene (C60), was prepared in 1985 by Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, James Heath, Sean OBrien, and Harold Kroto at Rice University. The name was an homage to Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes it resembles. The structure was also identified some five years earlier by Sumio Iijima, from an electron microscope image, where it formed the core of a bucky onion.[2] Fullerenes have since been found to occur in nature.[3] More recently, fullerenes have been detected in outer space.[4] According to astronomer Letizia Stanghellini, Its possible that buckyballs from outer space provided seeds for life on Earth.[5]

C60 buckyballs and longevity of rats, mice and other lower species

I start out with the publication that has initiated the current buz, The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60] fullerene published in August 2011. The study reported was designed to assess the toxicity of C60 in an olive oil suspension, not to assess impact on lifespans of rats. The result that not only was the suspension not toxic but radically increased the livespans of the rats was a surprise to the researchers. Countless studies showed that [60]fullerene (C60) and derivatives could have many potential biomedical applications. However, while several independent research groups showed that C60 has no acute or subacute toxicity in various experimental models, more than 25 years after its discovery the in vivo fate and the chronic effects of this fullerene remain unknown. If the potential of C60 and derivatives in the biomedical eld have to be fullled these issues must be addressed. Here we show that oral administration of C60 dissolved in olive oil (0.8 mg/ml) at reiterated doses (1.7 mg/kg of body weight) to rats not only does not entail chronic toxicity but it almost doubles their lifespan. The effects of C60-olive oil solutions in an experimental model of CCl4 intoxication in rat strongly suggest that the effect on lifespan is mainly due to the attenuation of age-associated increases in oxidative stress. Pharmacokinetic studies show that dissolved C60 is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract and eliminated in a few tens of hours. These results of importance in the elds of medicine and toxicology should open the way for the many possible -and waited for- biomedical applications of C60 including cancer therapy, neurodegenerative disorders, and ageing.

A nice thing about this publication is that it describes the experimental conditions in meticulous detail. For example, getting a good solvent vector for administration of C60 to animals has been a serious problem. Unlike many other studies which employed water-based solutions of C60 with poor or uncertain bioavailability and toxic effects, this study used an olive oil brew. Fifty mg of C60 were dissolved in 10 ml of olive oil by stirring for 2 weeks at was increased to 60% for 10 min and then hold constant for the remaining 7 min of ambient temperature in the dark. The resulting mixturewas centrifugedat 5.000gfor each sample run. At least 10 column volumes of the initial composition were ushed 1 h and the supernatant was ltered through a Millipore lter with 0.25 mmporosity.

There were several sub-studies reported in this paper. In the chronic toxicity and longevity sub-study, only 18 rats middle-aged were involved divided into three cohorts of six rats each: a) a control cohort fed normal rat chow, b) a cohort fed food plus olive oil by gavage, and c) a cohort feed the C60-olive oil brew by gavage (forced feeding). The rats were housed three per cage and acclimated for 14 days, before dosing. Three groups of 6 rats (10 months old, weighing 465.31(10 months old,were administered daily for one week, then weekly until the end of the second month and then every two weeks until the end of the 7th month, by gavages with 1 ml of water or olive oil or C60 dissolved in olive oil (0.8 mg/ml), respectively. All rats in cohort (a) were alive until week 18 of the experiment and all were dead by week 38. All rats in cohort (b). were alive until week 36 and all were dead by week 58. In cohort (c). all rats were alive until week 60 and all dead by week 66 (the last one being sacrificed at week 66). Between weeks 38 and 60 all the control rats were dead and all the C60-fed rats were alive and well. Olive oil alone produced a weighted average of 18% life extension while the weighted average for the C60-olive oil brew was 90%. Remarkably, no rats in cohort (c) contracted cancers.

In the sub-study of oxidative stress, the C60-olive oil mix almost completely protected against carbon tetrachloride oxidative liver damage. Sixty rats randomly divided into 10 groups of 6 rats were pre-treated daily for 7 days by oral gavages (og groups) or by i.p. injection (ip groups). Groups A (GAog and Groups B and C (GBog, GCog and GBip, GCip) were pre-treated with 1 ml of olive oil while groups D and E (GDog, GEog and GDip, GEip) were pre-treated with 1 ml of C60-olive oil Twenty-four hours before sacrice, groups GA, GC and GE were i.p. injected with a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg bw) while GB and GD, used as controls, were administered with a 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution under the same conditions. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and their livers examined. the liver sections of GA and GC animals co-treated with water and CCl4 or with olive respectively, showed important damage including many inammatory areas as well as large necrotic areas with ballooning necrotic cells associated with an important steatosis (Fig. 4). In contrast, microscopic examination of the liver sections of GE animals co-treated with C60-olive oil and CCl4, revealed few necrotic areas with some ballooning cells without apoptosis limited to some cords of hepatocytes (Fig. 4).

The study also investigated the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of C60 administration. The results of this pharmacokinetic study show for the rst time that C60 is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract (Fig. 1). In the case of highly hydrophobic drugs (Log P > 5) it is well known that the absorption of the molecules by the gastro-intestinal tract occurs via the mesenteric lymphatic system after association with developing lipoproteins in the enterocytes rather than via the portal blood [40]. Therefore, as the octanol/water partition coefcient of C60 is estimated to be 6.67 [41], the absorption of C60 occursvia the mesenteric lymphatic system rather than via the portal blood. The elimination half-lives indicate that C60 is completely eliminated from blood 97 h after administration irrespective of the route of administration. The elimination process follows a non-urinary route because unmodied C60 was not detected in urine samples taken up 48 h after administration. Previous investigations showed that C60 is mainly eliminated through the bile ducts [21] .

Conclusion: The effect of pristine C60 on lifespan emphasizes the absence of chronic toxicity. These results obtained with a small sample of animals with an exploratory protocol ask for a more extensive studies to optimize the intestinal absorption of C60 as well as the different parameters of the administration protocol: dose, posology, and treatment duration. In the present case, the treatment was stopped when a control rat died at M17, which proves that the effects of the C60 treatment are long-lasting as the estimated median lifespan for C60-treated rats is 42 months. It can be thought that a longer treatment could have generated even longer lifespans. Anyway, this work should open the road towards the development of the considerable potential of C60 in the biomedical eld, including cancer therapy, neurodegenerative disorders and ageing. Furthermore, in the eld of ageing, as C60 can be administered orally and as it is now produced in tons, it is no longer necessary to resort to its water-soluble derivatives, which are difficult to purify and in contrast to pristine C60 may be toxic

A 2008 publication also indicated that a fullerene is capable of extending the lifespans of mice: A carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic improves cognition and extends the lifespan of mice. In lower organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, many genes identified as key regulators of aging are involved in either detoxification of reactive oxygen species or the cellular response to oxidatively-damaged macromolecules. Transgenic mice have been generated to study these genes in mammalian aging, but have not in general exhibited the expected lifespan extension or beneficial behavioral effects, possibly reflecting compensatory changes during development. We administered a small-molecule synthetic enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic to wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, non-senescence accelerated) mice starting at middle age. Chronic treatment not only reduced age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production, but significantly extended lifespan. Treated mice also exhibited improved performance on the Morris water maze learning and memory task. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration that an administered antioxidant with mitochondrial activity and nervous system penetration not only increases lifespan, but rescues age-related cognitive impairment in mammals. SOD mimetics with such characteristics may provide unique complements to genetic strategies to study the contribution of oxidative processes to nervous system aging.

Another 2011 publication Polyhydroxy Fullerenes (Fullerols or Fullerenols): Beneficial Effects on Growth and Lifespan in Diverse Biological Models indicates that fullerenes can extend the lifespans of certain more primitive organisms. The publication reports Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

C60 is a powerful antioxidant

This point is long known and confirmed in a number of studies. From (2007) Medicinal applications of fullerenes: Results published in 1999 have shown that fullerenes have a potential as biological antioxidants. The antioxidant property is based on the fact that fullerenes possess large amount of conjugated double bonds and low lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) which can easily take up an electron, making an attack of radical species highly possible. It has been reported that up to 34 methyl radicals have been added onto a single C60 molecule. This quenching process appears to be catalytic. In other words the fullerene can react with many superoxides without being consumed. Due to this feature fullerenes are considered to be the worlds most efficient radical scavenger and are described as radical sponges (Krusic et al 1991). The major advantage of using fullerenes as medical antioxidant is their ability to localize within the cell to mitochondria and other cell compartment sites, where in diseased states, the production of free radicals takes place. Experiments on rats done by Najla Gharbi and coworkers proved this remarkable trait. They showed that aqueous C60 suspensions prepared without using any polar organic solvent, not only have no acute or sub acute toxicity in rodents, but also protect their livers against free-radical damage (Gharbi et al 2005).

The 2005 publication [60]fullerene is a powerful antioxidant in vivo with no acute or subacute toxicity confirms both this and another point made in the recent rat study: C60 does not engender toxicity in rodents. In the present work, we report the effects of C(60)-pretreatments on acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats, a classical model for studying free-radical-mediated liver injury. Our results show that aqueous C(60) suspensions prepared without using any polar organic solvent not only have no acute or subacute toxicity in rodents but they also protect their livers in a dose-dependent manner against free-radical damage. To be sure, according to histopathological examinations and biological tests, pristine C(60) can be considered as a powerful liver-protective agent.

The 2011 report Antioxidant activity of fullerene C60 against OH free radicals: A Quantum Chemistry and Computational Kinetics Studyreports Fullerenes are considered to be the worlds most efficient radical scavenger, and represents an attractive tool for biological applications. Indeed, it have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, that fullerenes and related structures reduce the toxicity of free radical assault on neuronal tissue, reacting readily and at a high rate with free radicals, which are often the cause of cell damage or death. Although there is strong evidence that antioxidant activity is an intrinsec property of fullerenes, the mechanism of radical scavenging and neuroprotection are still unclear. In this work, we have studied the reaction between fullerene C60 and hydroxyl radicals, using high level quantum chemistry and computational kinetics methods. Energy profiles are calculated using different basis sets, and reaction rate constant are reported for the first time. The presence of nonpolar environments seems to enhance the reactivity of fullerene molecule toward OH radicals, compared to the gas phase. Energetic considerations show that, once a first radical is attached to the fullerene cage, further additions are increasingly feasible, suggesting that fullerene can act as OH radical sponges. They also protect their livers in a dose-dependent manner against free-radical damage. To be sure, according to histopathological examinations and biological tests, pristine C(60) can be considered as a powerful liver-protective agent.

C60 has low toxicity and can cross the blood-brain barrier and may lead to many medical applications.

The 2012 publication C60 fullerene derivatized nanoparticles and their application to therapeutics reports Fullerenes can be formed into many new materials and devices. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, electronics, biomaterials, and energy production. An overview of the nanostructure and the physical and chemical characteristics of fullerene-drug derivatives is given. The biological behavior of fullerene derivatives shows their potential to medical application fields because C(60) is rapidly absorbed by tissues and is excreted through urinary tract and enterons, which reveals low toxicity in vitro and in vivo studies. Nanomedicine has become one of the most promising areas of nanotechnology, while many have claimed its therapeutic use against cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and neurodegenerative disorders. Water-soluble C(60) fullerene derivatives that come from chemical modification largely enhance the biological efficacy. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical barrier composed of endothelial tight junctions that restrict the paracellular permeability. A major challenge facing neuropharmacology is to find compounds that can be delivered into the brain through the bloodstream. Fullerene C(60) was demonstratively able to cross the BBB by hybridizing a biologically active moiety dyad, which provides a promising clue as a pharmacological therapy of neural disorders.

Fullerene C60 is neuroprotective

The 2001 publication Fullerene-based antioxidants and neurodegenerative disorders reports: Water-soluble derivatives of buckminsterfullerene (C60) derivatives are a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties. Studies on one class of these compounds, the malonic acid C60 derivatives (carboxyfullerenes), indicated that they are capable of eliminating both superoxide anion and H2O2, and were effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation, as well. Carboxyfullerenes demonstrated robust neuroprotection against excitotoxic, apoptotic and metabolic insults in cortical cell cultures. They were also capable of rescuing mesence-phalic dopaminergic neurons from both MPP1 and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. Although there is limited in vivo data on these compounds to date, we have previously reported that systemic administration of the C3 carboxyfullerene isomer delayed motor deterioration and death in a mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Ongoing studies in other animal models of CNS disease states suggest that these novel antioxidants are potential neuroprotective agents for other neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinsons disease.

C60 derivative and hybrid structure compounds are also being studied for their neurprotective as well as other medical properties. See for example [Study of the neuroprotective action of hybrid structures based on fullerene C60]. The neuroprotective action of hybrid structures based on fullerene C60 with attached proline amino acid has been studied. Hybrid structures contained natural antioxidant carnosine or addends with one or two nitrate groups. It has been shown that all studied compounds had antioxidant activity and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde in homogenates of the rat brain.

Fullerene C60 might be useful for the treatment of Alzheimers disease.

The 2012 publication Fullerene C60 prevents neurotoxicity induced by intrahippocampal microinjection of amyloid-beta peptide reports: The dynamics of the state of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after intrahippocampal microinjections of (1) amyloid-beta25-35 (1.6 nmol/1 microl), (2) an aqueous molecule-colloidal solution of C60 (0.46 nmol/1 microl) and (3) an aqueous molecule-colloidal solution of C60 before amyloid-beta25-35 administration were analysed in rats. This model allowed us to study the role of amyloid-beta25-35 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease and to test anti-amyloid substances. Methods of fluorescent (acridine orange) and brightfield (cresyl violet and immunohistochemistry) microscopy were used. Acridine orange staining indicated changes in protein synthesis intensity due to alterations in the rRNA state of neuron ribosomes. One day after administration of amyloid-beta25-35, the intensity of protein synthesis in the population of morphologically intact cells decreased by 45%. By day 14, degeneration occurred in the majority of pyramidal cells, and amyloid-beta25-35 deposits were observed in the neuronal cytoplasm. In necrotic cells, acridine orange staining of the cytoplasm was drastically increased as a result of RNA degradation rather than due to an increase in protein synthesis. Because amyloid-beta25-35 administration provoked oxidative stress, we assumed that an aqueous molecule-colloidal solution of C60 administered before amyloid-beta25-35 prevented protein synthesis changes on day 1, while acting as an antioxidant, and by day 14 it inhibited neurodegeneration and amyloid-beta25-35 accumulation. Based on the data that an aqueous molecule-colloidal solution of C60 prevented amyloid-beta25-35 aggregation in in vitro experiments and based on our present evidence on the antitoxicity of an aqueous molecule-colloidal solution of C60, we suggest that functionalised C60 prevents/diminishes amyloid-beta25-35 aggregation in vivo as well. Thus, an aqueous molecule-colloidal solution of C60 administered at a low concentration before amyloid-beta2-35, prevented disturbances in protein synthesis, neurodegeneration and formation amyloid-beta25-35 deposits in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vivo. This evidence gives promise that functionalised C60 can be used to develop anti-amyloid drugs combining antioxidant and anti-aggregative properties.

The 2012 publication [Antiamyloid properties of fullerene C60 derivatives]reports A comparative estimation of the ability of complexes of fullerene C60 with polyvinylpyrrolidone and fullerene C60 derivatives (the sodium salt of the polycarboxylic derivative of fullerene C60, sodium fullerenolate), has been carried out. The fullerenes destroyed amyloid fibrils of the Abeta(1-42) peptide of the brain and the muscle X-protein. A study of the effect of fullerenes on muscle actin showed that complexes of fullerene C60 with polyvinylpyrrolidone and sodium fullerenolate did not prevent the filament formation of actin, nor did they destroy its filaments in vitro. Conversely, sodium salt of the polycarboxylic derivative of fullerene C60 destroyed actin filaments and prevented their formation. It was concluded that sodium fullerenolate and complexes of fullerene C60 with polyvinylpyrrolidone are the most effective antiamyloid compounds among the fullerenes examined.

Fullerenes may enable new anticancer therapies via various mechanisms: one is as a carrier for conventional anticancer drugs; another is enhancing cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy drugs; another yet is based on the anti-cancer activities of the fullerene molecules themselves.

With respect to the first role, as a potential carrier of conventional anti-cancer drugs, the new (November 2012) publication Water-Dispersible Fullerene Aggregates as a Targeted Anticancer Prodrug with both Chemo- and Photodynamic Therapeutic Actions reports Prodrug therapy is one strategy to deliver anticancer drugs in a less reactive manner to reduce nonspecific cytotoxicity. A new multifunctional anticancer prodrug system based on water-dispersible fullerene (C60) aggregates is introduced; this prodrug system demonstrates active targeting, pH-responsive chemotherapy, and photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) properties. Incorporating (via a cleavable bond) an anticancer drug, which is doxorubicin (DOX) in this study, and a targeting ligand (folic acid) onto fullerene while maintaining an overall size of approximately 135 nm produces a more specific anticancer prodrug. This prodrug can enter folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells and kill the cells via intracellular release of the active drug form. Moreover, the fullerene aggregate carrier exhibits PDT action; the cytotoxicity of the system towards FR-positive cancer cells is increased in response to light irradiation. As the DOX drug molecules are conjugated onto fullerene, the DOX fluorescence is significantly quenched by the strong electron-accepting capability of fullerene. The fluorescence restores upon release from fullerene, so this fluorescence quenching-restoring feature can be used to track intracellular DOX release. The combined effect of chemotherapy and PDT increases the therapeutic efficacy of the DOX-fullerene aggregate prodrug. This study provides useful insights into designing and improving the applicability of fullerene for other targeted cancer prodrug systems.

Another publication, dated 2013, related to use of fullerenes for anti-cancer drug delivery is PEI-derivatized fullerene drug delivery using folate as a homing device targeting to tumor.You can also see (1007) Nanotubes, Nanorods, Nanofibers and Fullerenes for Nanoscale Drug Delivery.

C60 compounds are also promising as delivery vehicles for drugs.

For example, related to myocardial treatments the 2010 publicationThe C60-fullerene porphyrin adducts for prevention of the doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rat myocardial cellsreports: This is a fullerene-based low toxic nanocationite designed for targeted delivery of the paramagnetic stable isotope of magnesium to the doxorubicin (DXR)-induced damaged heart muscle providing a prominent effect close to about 80% recovery of the tissue hypoxia symptoms in less than 24 hrs after a single injection (0.03 0.1 LD50). Magnesium magnetic isotope effect selectively stimulates the ATP formation in the oxygen-depleted cells due to a creatine kinase (CK) and mitochondrial respiratory chain-focusing attack of 25Mg2+ released by nanoparticles. These smart nanoparticles with membranotropic properties release the overactivating cations only in response to the intracellular acidosis. The resulting positive changes in the energy metabolism of heart cell may help to prevent local myocardial hypoxic (ischemic) disorders and, hence, to protect the heart muscle from a serious damage in a vast variety of the hypoxia-induced clinical situations including DXR side effects.

C60 can enhance the cytotoxic action of chemotherapeutic agents against cancer through autophagy.

The 2009 publication Autophagy-mediated chemosensitization in cancer cells by fullerene C60 nanocrystalreports: Autophagy may represent a common cellular response to nanomaterials, and modulation of autophagy holds great promise for improving the efficacy of cancer therapy. Fullerene C60 possesses potent anti-cancer activities, but its considerable toxicity towards normal cells may hinder its practical applications. It has been reported that fullerene C60 induces certain hallmarks of autophagy in cancer cells. Here we show that the water-dispersed nanocrystal of underivatized fullerene C60 (Nano-C60) at noncytotoxic concentrations caused authentic autophagy and sensitized chemotherapeutic killing of both normal and drug-resistant cancer cells in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and photo-enhanced fashion. We further demonstrated that the chemosensitization effect of Nano-C60 was autophagy-mediated and required a functional Atg5, a key gene in the autophagy signaling pathway. Our results revealed a novel biological function for Nano-C60 in enhancing the cytotoxic action of chemotherapeutic agents through autophagy modulation and may point to the potential application of Nano-C60 in adjunct chemotherapy.

C60 protects against radiation-induced cell damage

The 2010 publication Dendro[C(60)]fullerene DF-1 provides radioprotection to radiosensitive mammalian cells reports: In this study, the ability of the C(60) fullerene derivative DF-1 to protect radiosensitive cells from the effects of high doses of gamma irradiation was examined. Earlier reports of DF-1s lack of toxicity in these cells were confirmed, and DF-1 was also observed to protect both human lymphocytes and rat intestinal crypt cells against radiation-induced cell death. We determined that DF-1 protected both cell types against radiation-induced DNA damage, as measured by inhibition of micronucleus formation. DF-1 also reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species in the crypt cells, a unique capability of fullerenes because of their enhanced reactivity toward electron-rich species. The ability of DF-1 to protect against the cytotoxic effects of radiation was comparable to that of amifostine, another ROS-scavenging radioprotector. Interestingly, localization of fluorescently labeled DF-1 in fibroblast was observed throughout the cell. Taken together, these results suggest that DF-1 provides powerful protection against several deleterious cellular consequences of irradiation in mammalian systems including oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death.

See also the 2010 publication The polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)24 protects mice from ionizing-radiation-induced immune and mitochondrial dysfunction.

C60 fullerenes have anti-viral properties and might be useful for preventing or delaying the onset of AIDS.

From (2007) Medicinal applications of fullerenes:Compounds with antiviral activity are generally of great medical interest and different modes of pharmaceutical actions have been described. Replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be suppressed by several antiviral compounds, which are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Fullerenes (C60) and their derivatives have potential antiviral activity, which has strong implications on the treatment of HIV-infection. The antiviral activity of fullerene derivatives is based on several biological properties including their unique molecular architecture and antioxidant activity. It has been shown that fullerenes derivatives can inhibit and make complex with HIV protease (HIV-P) (Friedman et al 1993; Sijbesma et al 1993). Dendrofullerene 1 (Figure 1) has shown the highest anti-protease activity (Brettreich and Hirsch 1998; Schuster et al 2000). Derivative 2, the trans-2 isomer (Figure 1), is a strong inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. The study suggests that relative position (trans-2) of substituents on fullerenes and positive charges near to fullerenes cage provide an antiviral structural activity. Also Amino acid derivatives of fullerene C60 (ADF) are found to inhibit HIV and human cytomegalovirus replication (Kotelnikova et al 2003).

Fullerenes inhibit the allergic response

The 2007 publication Fullerene nanomaterials inhibit the allergic response reports Fullerenes are a class of novel carbon allotropes that may have practical applications in biotechnology and medicine. Human mast cells (MC) and peripheral blood basophils are critical cells involved in the initiation and propagation of several inflammatory conditions, mainly type I hypersensitivity. We report an unanticipated role of fullerenes as a negative regulator of allergic mediator release that suppresses Ag-driven type I hypersensitivity. Human MC and peripheral blood basophils exhibited a significant inhibition of IgE dependent mediator release when preincubated with C(60) fullerenes. Protein microarray demonstrated that inhibition of mediator release involves profound reductions in the activation of signaling molecules involved in mediator release and oxidative stress. Follow-up studies demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk was dramatically inhibited in Ag-challenged cells first incubated with fullerenes. In addition, fullerene preincubation significantly inhibited IgE-induced elevation in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, fullerenes prevented the in vivo release of histamine and drop in core body temperature in vivo using a MC-dependent model of anaphylaxis. These findings identify a new biological function for fullerenes and may represent a novel way to control MC-dependent diseases including asthma, inflammatory arthritis, heart disease, and multiple sclerosis.

C60 fullerenes exercise immunomodulary effects.

The 2012 publication [The condition of lipid peroxidation in mice and the effect of fullerene C60 during immune response] reports: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fullerene C60 on lipid peroxidation (POL) and antioxidant protection during the induction of the immune response to heteroantigen. Balb/c mice were immunized intraperitoneal (i.p.) with sheep erythrocytes for the primary immunization. Water dispersion of fullerene C60 was injected i.p. once at the dose 50 ng to mice on first, third and sixth days after immunization. During immune response, the increment ofmalonic dialdehide (MDA) was enhanced in liver, kidneys and heart tissues. Fullerene C60 induced POL during the latent phase of immune response, but inhibited this process during progression of immune response. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver and spleen tissues were induced after injection of fullerene C60 to intact mice. After immunization, high level of activity of antioxidant enzymes and low level of organs mass factor were determined. Injection of fullerene C60 reduced the activities of SOD and catalase in spleen tissues. The results of our study indicate that fullerene C60 can display positive effect on POL processes and antioxidant enzymes activity which is probably due to membranes stabilization action or the ability of fullerene C60 to bind free radicals independently.

Another 2012 publication that demonstrates anti-arthritis immunomodulatory activity in rats is [Fullerene C60 exhibits immunomodulatory activity during adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats].The effect of fullerene C60 (FC60) on the immune processes during experimental adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats has been studied. The results indicate the inhibitory action of FN60 during AA on cellular splenocyte proliferation, neutrophil phagocytic and oxygen-stimulatory activities in the NBT test, and humoral immune mechanisms involved in the production of antinuclear antibodies, formation of circulating immune complexes, and restoration of morphological structure of spleen. Taken together, these results allow FC60 to be considered as a new potential pharmacological agent that can realize its effects mainly through anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity.

C60 fullerenes appear to affect the innate immune system

An august 2012 publication Effect of buckminsterfullerenes o cells of the innate and adaptive immune system: an in vitro study with human peripheral blood mononuclear cellsreported: C60 nanoparticles, the so-called buckminsterfullerenes, have attracted great attention for medical applications as carriers, enzyme inhibitors or radical scavengers. However, publications evaluating their immunological mechanisms are still rather limited. Therefore, we aimed to analyze systematically the in vitro influence of polyhydroxy-C60 (poly-C60) and N-ethyl-polyamino-C60 (nepo-C60) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals, angling their effect on proliferation, expression of surface markers, and cytokine production. We isolated PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and incubated them in a first step only with poly-C60 or nepo-C60, and in a second step together with recall antigens (purified protein derivative, tetanus toxoid, bacillus Calmette-Gurin). Proliferation was determined by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, activation of PBMC-subpopulations by flow cytometry by measurement of the activation marker CD69, and secretion of T helper cell type 1 (TH1)- (interferon-gamma [IFN-], tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-]), TH2- (interleukin-5 [IL-5], -13, -10) and macrophage/monocyte-related cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-) into the supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both fullerenes did not influence T cell reactivity, with no enhanced expression of CD69 and production of T cell cytokines observed, the CD4/CD8 ratio remaining unaffected. In contrast, they significantly enhanced the release of IL-6 and CD69-expression by CD56 positive natural killer cells. PBMC, which had been cultured together with the three recall antigens were not affected by both fullerenes at all. These data indicate that fullerenes do not interact with T cell reactivity but may activate cells of the innate immune system. Furthermore, they seem to act only on nave cells, which have not been prestimulated with recall antigens, there are however, large inter individual differences.

C60 may affect platelet aggregation

A 2012 Russian publicationEffects of fullerene C60 nanocomposites on human platelet aggregationREPORTS: The effects of fullerene C(60) nanocomposites on human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, ristocetin, and collagen were studied. The nanocomposite containing fullerene C(60) in polyvinyl pyrrolidone solution did not change platelet aggregation, while fullerene C(60) in crown ether and Twin-80 solutions inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 20 and 30%, respectively. I do not know if the study was controlled to take account the effects of the solvents used.

Fullerenes can potentiate hair growth

The 2009 publicationFullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growthreports Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 bald mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

Less perspective be lost, it is important to keep in mind that the major interests in C60 relate to developing new structural materials and electronic applications.

For these reasons C60 is currently being manufactured in industrial quantities measured in tons and there has been considerable concern about the biological impact of C60 and other fullerenes being released into the environment.

Literature related to the toxicity of C60 comes to mixed conclusions. One the one hand, there has been much general concern about toxicities and long-term biological impacts of fullerenes. And theoretical studies strongly suggest toxic actions of C60 against DNA and other cell components. On the other hand, specific studies of C60 show few or no toxic effects on whole animals. Researchers caution against possible yet-unobserved long-term effects.

The rat longevity study mentioned earlier was basically conducted to measure C60 toxicity, and found little or none. Another 2012 study Sub-acute oral toxicity study with fullerene C60 in ratsreports: To obtain initial information on the possible repeated-dose oral toxicity of fullerene C60, Crl:CD(SD) rats were administered fullerene C60 by gavage once daily at 0 (vehicle: corn oil), 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 mg/kg/day for 29 days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. No deaths occurred in any groups, and there were no changes from controls in detailed clinical observations, body weights, and food consumption in any treatment groups. Moreover, no treatment-related histopathological changes were found in any organs examined at the end of the administration period and at the end of the recovery period. Blackish feces and black contents of the stomach and large intestine were observed in males and females at 1,000 mg/kg/day in the treatment group. There were no changes from controls in the liver and spleen weights at the end of the administration period, but those weights in males in the 1,000 mg/kg/day group increased at the end of the recovery period. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, fullerene C60 were not detected in the liver, spleen or kidney at the end of the administration period and also at the end of the recovery period. In conclusion, the present study revealed no toxicological effects of fullerene C60; however, the slight increases in liver and spleen weights after the 14-day recovery period may be because of the influence of fullerene C60 oral administration. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct a long-term examination because the effects of fullerene C60 cannot be ruled out.

More on the cautious side is the 2009 book chapter Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbon Nanomaterials: With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is a pressing demand for assessment of the potential hazards of carbon nanomaterials to humans and other biological systems. This chapter summarizes our recent in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies on carbon nanomaterials with an emphasis on carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds. The studies summarized in this chapter demonstrate that carbon nanomaterials exhibit material-specific and cell-specific cytotoxicity with the general trend for biocompatibility: nanodiamonds > carbon black powders > multiwalled carbon nanotubes > single-walled carbon nanotubes, with macrophages being much more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of these carbon nanomaterials than neuroblastoma cells. However, the cytotoxicity to carbon nanomaterials could be tuned by functionalizing the nanomaterials with different surface groups. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds, albeit to a less extend, can accumulate in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to cause DNA damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and to increase the mutation frequency in mouse ES cells. These results point out the great need for careful scrutiny of the toxicity of nanomaterials at the molecular level, or genotoxicity, even for those materials like multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds that have been demonstrated to cause limited or no toxicity at the cellular level.

Despite its apparent benevolence when ingested by rats, C60 and its derivatives solutions when photo-activated can produce singlet oxygen radicals which are biologically damaging.

For example, see Photo-Induced Damages of Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Membranes by a [C60]Fullerene Malonic Acid Derivative. On the one hand, the photo-activation properties of C60 appear to make it toxic and dangerous for some aquatic species(ref)(ref)(ref). So, there is serious concern about release of manufactured C60 into natural aquatic environments. On the other hand, there has been thought of exploiting these properties in photo-based anticancer therapies(ref). fullerenes can effectively photoinactivate either or both pathogenic microbial cells and malignant cancer cells. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion as well as singlet oxygen, and under the right conditions fullerenes may have advantages over clinically applied photosensitizers for mediating photodynamic therapy of certain diseases(ref). Photo-responsiveness of cells exposed to C60 can be fairly complex(ref).

I strongly suspect that a deeper biological mechanism is involved in the health and longevity-producing effects of C60 despite the prevailing wisdom. As I see it the candidates for these deeper effects of C60 are (1) effects exercised on DNA including impacts on structural configuration, epigenetic gene activation effects, histones and nuclear envelope shape, (2) effects exercised on microtubule structures in cells, (3) effects on mitochondria, and (4) epigenetic impacts such as on histones and DNA methylation.

I cannot prove this suspicion; that will require further research. However I can cite arguments that tend to confirm my suspicion.

(1) C60 is known to bind to and have impact on DNA. While the results of modeling studies indicate toxic effects on DNA, certain effects could possibly be beneficial.

That C60 binds to and deforms DNA has been known for some time. A 2005 publication C60 binds to and deforms nucleotides reported: Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed for up to 20 ns to monitor the formation and the stability of complexes composed of single- or double-strand DNA molecules and C60 in aqueous solution. Despite the hydrophobic nature of C60, our results show that fullerenes strongly bind to nucleotides. The binding energies are in the range -27 to -42 kcal/mol; by contrast, the binding energy of two fullerenes in aqueous solution is only -7.5 kcal/mol. We observe the displacement of water molecules from the region between the nucleotides and the fullerenes and we attribute the large favorable interaction energies to hydrophobic interactions. The features of the DNA-C60 complexes depend on the nature of the nucleotides: C60 binds to double-strand DNA, either at the hydrophobic ends or at the minor groove of the nucleotide. C60 binds to single-strand DNA and deforms the nucleotides significantly. Unexpectedly, when the double-strand DNA is in the A-form, fullerenes penetrate into the double helix from the end, form stable hybrids, and frustrate the hydrogen bonds between end-group basepairs in the nucleotide. When the DNA molecule is damaged (specifically, a gap was created by removing a piece of the nucleotide from one helix), fullerenes can stably occupy the damaged site. We speculate that this strong association may negatively impact the self-repairing process of the double-strand DNA. Our results clearly indicate that the association between C60 and DNA is stronger and more favorable than that between two C60 molecules in water. Therefore, our simulation results suggest that C60 molecules have potentially negative impact on the structure, stability, and biological functions of DNA molecules.

The recent 2012 publicationA large-scale association study for nanoparticle C60 uncovers mechanisms of nanotoxicity disrupting the native conformations of DNA/RNA,a modeling study, reports: Nano-scale particles have attracted a lot of attention for its potential use in medical studies, in particular for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, the toxicity and other side effects caused by the undesired interaction between nanoparticles and DNA/RNA are not clear. To address this problem, a model to evaluate the general rules governing how nanoparticles interact with DNA/RNA is demanded. Here by, use of an examination of 2254 native nucleotides with molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic analysis, we demonstrate how the DNA/RNA native structures are disrupted by the fullerene (C60) in a physiological condition. The nanoparticle was found to bind with the minor grooves of double-stranded DNA and trigger unwinding and disrupting of the DNA helix, which indicates C60 can potentially inhibit the DNA replication and induce potential side effects. In contrast to that of DNA, C60 only binds to the major grooves of RNA helix, which stabilizes the RNA structure or transforms the configuration from stretch to curl. This finding sheds new light on how C60 inhibits reverse transcription as HIV replicates. In addition, the binding of C60 stabilizes the structures of RNA riboswitch, indicating that C60 might regulate the gene expression. The binding energies of C60 with different genomic fragments varies in the range of -56 to -10 kcal mol(-1), which further verifies the role of nanoparticle in DNA/RNA damage. Our findings reveal a general mode by which C60 causes DNA/RNA damage or other toxic effects at a systematic level, suggesting it should be cautious to handle these nanomaterials in various medical applications.

A 2011 publication DNA Exposure to Buckminsterfullerene (C60): Toward DNA Stability, Reactivity, and Replicationconveys a somewhat different story, indicating that fullernols not only have major impacts on the structures and biological properties of DNA, but also that they can contribute remarkably to DNA stability against thermal degredation.

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) has received great research interest due to its extraordinary properties and increasing applications in manufacturing industry and biomedical technology. We recently reported C60 could enter bacterial cells and bind to DNA molecules. This study was to further determine how the DNAC60 binding affected the thermal stability and enzymatic digestion of DNA molecules, and DNA mutations. Nano-C60 aggregates and water-soluble fullerenols were synthesized and their impact on DNA biochemical and microbial activity was investigated. Our results revealed that water-soluble fullerenols could bind to lambda DNA and improve DNA stability remarkably against thermal degradation at 7085 C in a dose-dependent manner. DNase I and HindIII restriction endonuclease activities were inhibited after interacting with fullerenols at a high dose. Experimental results also showed the different influence of fullerenol and nano-C60 on their antibacterial mechanisms, where fullerenols contributed considerable impact on cell damage and mutation rate. This preliminary study indicated that the application of fullerenols results in significant changes in the physical structures and biochemical functions of DNA molecules.

The general topic of nanopartucles binding is covered in a 2012 review publication Prospects of nanoparticleDNA binding and its implications in medical biotechnology. This remains a very new and immature area of research.

Right now it seems fair to conclude that C60 is very likely to bind to and interact with DNA/RNA, but the macroscopic outcomes of such interactions are unknown. There does seem to be contradictions between rodent studies that suggest no overall toxic effects of C60 and the molecular-chemical studies which suggest that C60 could play havoc with DNA.

(2) C60 is known to affect the formation and durability of microtubules.

First of all, a little on microtubules for those not familiar with them. Although almost never mentioned in the longevity literature they are critical to health and longevity. According to Wikipedia, Microtubules are a component of the cytoskeleton. These cylindrical polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 25 micrometers and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of microtubule is about 25 nm. Microtubules are important for maintaining cell structure, providing platforms for intracellular transport, forming the mitotic spindle, as well as other cellular processes.[1] There are many proteins that bind to microtubules, including motor proteins such as kinesin and dynein, severing proteins like katanin, and other proteins important for regulating microtubule dynamics Microtubules are part of a structural network (the cytoskeleton) within the cells cytoplasm. The primary role of the microtubule cytoskeleton is mechanical. However, in addition to structural support, microtubules also take part in many other processes. A microtubule is capable of growing and shrinking in order to generate force, and there are also motor proteins that allow organelles and other cellular factors to be carried along a microtubule. This combination of roles makes microtubules important for organising cell layout. A notable structure involving microtubules is the mitotic spindle used by most eukaryotic cells to segregate their chromosomes correctly during cell division. The process of mitosis is facilitated by a subgroup of microtubules known as astral microtubules, defined as a microtubule originating from the centrosome that does not connect to a kinetochore. Astral microtubules develop in the actin skeleton and interact with the cell cortex to aid in spindle orientation. They are organized into radial arrays around the centrosomes. The turn-over rate of this population of microtubules is higher than that of any other population. Astral microtubules function in concert with specialized dynein motors, which are oriented with the light chain portion attached to the cell membrane and the dynamic portion attached to the microtubule. This allows for dynein contraction to pull the centrosome toward the cell membrane, thus assisting in cytokinesis. Astral microtubules are not required for the progression of mitosis, but they are required to ensure the fidelity of the process; they are required for the correct positioning and orientation of the mitotic spindle apparatus. They are also involved in determination of cell division site based on the geometry and polarity of the cells (ref).[2][3]

Image source

Microtubules and microfiliments

I first discussed microtubules in my blog entry Quantum Biology. There I pointed out how some quantum biologists argue that there is yet-another role for microtubules they are quantum computers possibly exercising command and control functions for cell processes. In fact it is known that microtubules are semiconductors as are certain arrays of fullerenes. However, the quantum computer role for microtubules remains controversial. For now, it is enough to know that microtubules are important for cell structure and are main rail lines for transport of molecules within cells.

The 2004 publication In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation of Collagen C60(OH)24 Interactionargues that fullerole affects intermolecular communications from collegen fibers through integrines and microtubules to cell nucleus.

A 2011 publication In vitro polymerization of microtubules with a fullerene derivative reports that a fullerene C60 derivative inhibits the polymerization of tubulin and therefore inhibits the formation of new microtubules. Fullerene derivative C(60)(OH)(20) inhibited microtubule polymerization at low micromolar concentrations. The inhibition was mainly attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the nanoparticle and the tubulin heterodimer, the building block of the microtubule, as evidenced by docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Our circular dichroism spectroscopy measurement indicated changes in the tubulin secondary structures, while our guanosine-5-triphosphate hydrolysis assay showed hindered release of inorganic phosphate by the nanoparticle. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that C(60)(OH)(20) binds to tubulin at a molar ratio of 9:1 and with a binding constant of 1.3 0.16 10(6) M(-1), which was substantiated by the binding site and binding energy analysis using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations further suggested that occupancy by the nanoparticles at the longitudinal contacts between tubulin dimers within a protofilament or at the lateral contacts of the M-loop and H5 and H12 helices of neighboring tubulins could also influence the polymerization process. This study offered a new molecular-level insight on how nanoparticles may reshape the assembly of cytoskeletal proteins, a topic of essential importance for illuminating cell response to engineered nanoparticles and for the advancement of nanomedicine. An in-vitro result, it suggests the opposite of a health-producing effect of C60 on microtubules.

Again, the interactions of C60 with cell microtubules and their creation and destruction appear to be not well understood. It seems such interactions do exist. Although modeling studies suggest that the macroscopic results of such interactions may be toxic rather than health-producing, we just dont know for sure.

(3) C60 buckballs cross cell barriers and preferentially localize themselves in mitochondria. There, they exercise powerful antioxidant effects and possibly other effects as well.

When fullerene is derivatized with polar groups, as in case of polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenol) and C60 tris(malonic)acid, they become water soluble enabling them to cross the cell membrane and localize preferentially to mitochondria (Foley et al 2002; Youle and Karbowski 2005), which generate great masses of cellular oxygen free radicals. This phenomenon makes them useful for a variety of medical applications (Tsai et al 1997; Lotharius et al 1999; Bisaglia et al 2000). These radical scavengers have shown to protect cell growth from various toxins that can induce apoptotic injuries in vitro (Lin et al 1999; Lin et al 2002; Chen et al 2004) in different cell types such as neuronal cells (Dugan et al 1997; Bisaglia et al 2000), hepatoma cells (Huang et al 1998), or epithelial cells (Straface et al 1999).(ref)

Does C60 do more in the microchondria than act as a super anti-oxidant? Or does the super antioxidant power of C60 create permanent changes in the mitochondria? If the research literature is indicative, no one has so far grappled with these questions or even asked them for that matter.

Final comments

I could quote and discuss here only a small but hopefully representative sample of the unfolding literature related to C60 and its biological impacts. The rodent longevity studies are tantalizing but tiny and hopefully will be soon followed by much larger ones. There appear to be some basic contradictions and many more basic questions are raised than those answered. For rodents at least, far from being toxic pure C60 appears to be not only benevolent but life-extending. On the other hand, mostly-theoretical studies of the likely impacts of C60 on DNA and on microtubules and cell morphology suggest that C60 may generate all kinds of havoc on the cell level. Without question C60 is a powerful antioxidant. However it tends to generate permanent longevity-enhancing changes and it is not at all clear how an antioxidant could do that? How does it work to so grossly extend longevity? Are there other means through which C60 works its health and longevity benefits, and if so, what are they?

The literature references I have been able to surface seemed to focus on the lipid membrane and antioxidant and other chemical properties of C60 mostly 1990s ways of looking at biological mechanisms which are valid but limited. The research literature so far seems to be remarkably silent on certain issues that could turn out to be key: C60 and DNA methylation, impacts of C60 on histones, C60 and the DNA repair machinery, C60 as related to stem cells, C60 and siRNAs, and C60 as related to key known aging pathways. It the longevity impacts of C60 hold up, there are important layers of knowledge here yet to be revealed. If this were an archeological dig, we have so far only gone down a foot or two.

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Buckyballs, health and longevity state of knowledge ...

Fitness Factory – Home

Posted: October 19, 2018 at 2:42 pm

Fitness Factory - Home Home Friday, October 19, 2018

Mondays 6:00-6:45am Kettlebell 8:15-9:30am Power Plyo 9:15-10:00am Yoga Flow 12:15-12:45pm Kettlebell 4:30-5:00pm Group Cycling 4:30-5:00pm Flyte Fitness 5:15-6:15pm Hour of Power

Tuesdays 6:00-6:45am Tough Mudder Training 8:15-9:00am Carolyns Low Impact 9:15-10:00am Variable Resistance Training 10:15-11:00am Strength Training 12:15-12:45pm Group Cycling 4:30-5:00pm Kettlebell 5:15-6:00pm Butt Busters 6:15-7:00pm H.I.T.

Wednesdays 6:00-6:45am Variable Resistance Training 8:15-9:00am Core Zone Express 9:00-9:30am Flyte Fitness 9:15-10:00am Silver & Fit 12:15-12:45pm Strength Training 3:45-4:15pm Just Abs 4:15-5:00pm Strength Training 4:30-5:00pm Group Cycling 5:15-6:00pm Heidi's Hi-Lo Impact

Thursdays 6:00-6:30am Group Cycling 8:15-9:00am Zumba Gold 9:15-10:00am Butt Busters 10:15-11:00am Strength Training 12:15-12:45pm Core Zone Express 3:30-4:00pm Group Cycling 4:15-5:00pm Variable Resistance Training 5:15-5:45pm Group Cycling 5:45-6:30pm Pilates 6:00-6:45pm Strength Training 6:30-7:15pm Zumba

Fridays 6:00-6:30am Power Plyo 8:15-9:00am H.I.T. 9:15-10:00am Group Cycling 9:15-10:00am Silver & Fit 10:30-11:15am Yoga Flow 12:15-12:45pm Group Cycling 4:15-5:00pm Tough Mudder Training

Saturdays 7:45-8:15am Kettlebell 8:30-9:00am Just Abs 9:05-10:05am Hour of Power 10:15-11:00am Variable Resistance Training

Sundays 12:15-1:00pm Variable Resistance Training 1:00-1:30pm Just Abs

Tough Mudder Training: Ever want to try a Tough Mudder? Incorporate this class for the summer and you'll be ready. Plenty of bootcamp style workouts that will reinvigorate your fitness regimen!!

The team won multiple silver medals in their first trip to Villinova University Fall Fest. Great job Eric, Richie, and Nevin!

Starting May 9th, Fitness Factory will be holding Special Olympics powerlifting on Tuesdays at 7:30pm! Any interested coaches feel free to contact Carey.

StillFit is a platform designed to give you all the knowledge you need to take control of your life. My goal with creating this e-book is to give YOU the option to change your life with step by step guidance. In this book you will find a simple nutrient plan with guidelines, exercise routines for every day, and over 50 different exercises that can be used to create your own customized routine. What are you waiting for? It's time to take responsibility for your own health and well being!!

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Personal training is a good way to get the most out of your workouts. Personal trainers can motivate you to push past your previous goals, as well as offer suggestions for new exercises. Our personal trainers are well worth the extra money!

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Fitness Factory - Home


Posted: at 2:42 pm

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Fitbit launches $150 Charge 3 fitness tracker with new design

Posted: at 2:42 pm

By Stephen SilverMonday, August 20, 2018, 07:44 am PT (10:44 am ET)

Fitbit Monday announced the Charge 3, the latest product in its Charge line of "swim proof" wrist-based fitness trackers. The new product, at $149.95, represents a cheaper competitor to the Apple Watch and other higher-end smartwatches and wearables, while offering less functionality.

Fitbit also offers the Versa smartwatch, a more direct Apple Watch competitor, which launched in March, as well as the higher-end Ionic.

The first Fitbit Charge arrived in 2014, with the Charge 2 debuting in 2016.

In its announcement of the product, Fitbit touts the Charge line as its highest-selling. The new version, it says, offers a touchscreen display and seven days of battery life, as well as "the most advanced health and fitness features found on a Fitbit tracker to date." It offers what it calls advanced sleep-tracking features, measuring heart rate variability much like how the Apple Watch does.

"With Charge 3, we are building on the success of our best-selling Charge franchise and delivering our most innovative tracker, offering an extremely slim, comfortable and premium design, along with the advanced health and fitness features our users want. Charge 3 gives existing users a compelling reason to upgrade, while also allowing us to reach new users who want a sleeker, more affordable wearable in a tracker form factor," James Park, co-founder and CEO of Fitbit, said as part of the announcement. "Our commitment to consumer choice and ability to meet the demand of millions of users by offering a range of products, from trackers to smartwatches, will enable us to expand our share of the overall wearables market."

The Charge 3, which is available for presale now ahead of its October release, starts at $149.95, with a Fitbit Pay-enabled edition going for $169.95.

As of the end of 2017, Apple for the first time led the worldwide wearables market, with 17.7 million Apple Watches shipped, compared with 15.4 million of all Fitbit devices in the calendar year 2017. That's according to IDC's Worldwide Quarterly Wearables Tracker.

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Fitbit launches $150 Charge 3 fitness tracker with new design

The Best Fitness Trackers – forbes.com

Posted: at 2:42 pm

Weve spent more than 150 hours walking, running, sleeping, grocery shopping, kettlebell swinging, and cycling (indoors and out) to learn everything there is to know about fitness trackers. After considering new options and testing 23 top-rated trackers over the past three years, we think the Garmin Vvosport is the best fitness tracker for people who want to track their activity levels and progressively monitor their workouts. In case the Vvosport doesnt quite meet your needs, we have several other recommendations below.

Who should get this

The lines that separate a dedicated fitness tracker from a GPS running watch, a smartwatch, or even a smartphone have never been blurrier. Now you can find fitness trackers with GPS and push notifications, running watches with fitness tracking, and smartwatches with both. But as our testing reveals, a device thats designed to do all of those tasks isnt necessarily good at any of them. Generally speaking, if getting information or advice on your overall activity level is your primary goal, a fitness tracker is your best bet. These devices typically provide at-a-glance feedback regarding steps taken (as well as reminders to get up and move), measure the intensity of your exercise, and report on the quality of your sleep. Taken together, these measures can help you make positive changes to your health.

How we picked and tested

To test how well these trackers measure resting heart-rate, I wore all four trackers plus a heart-rate strap (connected to a smartphone app) to bed one night. I also used this test to compare the sleep tracking results across the products. I found that even the newest trackers struggle with producing the accuracy of a chest strap. If heart-rate training is your primary aim, youre better served with a chest strap monitor. After all of this, I spent some quality time with each band individually, assessing comfort, user friendliness, and overall impressions.

The best fitness tracker for most people:Garmin Vvosport

The Garmin Vvosport has everything youd expect from a good tracker, including next-level fitness features of onboard GPS tracking and activity auto-detection, both of which performed impressively and most consistently of all trackers in our tests. It has all the standard fitness tracker functions weve come to expect: step and stair counting, distance traveled, calories burned, and sleep statistics, as well as a relatively long battery life (up to seven days without GPS) and full waterproofing for wearing while you shower or swim. Though others have many of these attributes, the Vvosports reliability and consistency give it the edge over the rest.

Heart-rate plus smartwatch features:Samsung Gear Fit2 Pro

For a fitness band with smartwatch-like features, look to the Samsung Gear Fit2 Pro. It incorporates movement auto-detection, multisport workout options, accurate heart-rate tracking, and GPS tracking for outdoor workouts. It has all the smartwatch notifications you might want, plus the ability to reply to text messages and emails with preprogrammed canned responses, and Samsung offers a growing library of downloadable apps to further customize the band. In addition, its gorgeous and oh-so-slick on the wrist. Unfortunately, its short battery life is a weak point, and you cant use the canned responses for notifications if youre using it on an iPhone.

Basic fitness tracking on a budget:Fitbit Flex 2

The Fitbit Flex 2 embodies all that Fitbit excels at. The minimal form has no screen, and though its distance tracking and heart-rate monitoring are less accurate than other models, it has a big advantage over the competition with the vast social community that Fitbit has cultivatedan important factor, because research has shown social reinforcement to be one of the most powerful motivators in pursuit of fitness.

Fitness tracking without a smartphone:Garmin Vvofit 3

When I tell people I review fitness trackers professionally, I often get asked which of these things is the least tech-y. The Garmin Vvofit 3 is the answer. Though you certainly get more from the Vvofit 3 if you have it synced to your phoneespecially sleep tracking, which doesnt appear on the unit itselfthe beauty of this model is that you dont have to. I could even see a non-smartphone/non-computer owner just wear it daily and (gasp!) write down the step count in a notepad to keep a log. Its also water-resistant to five atmospheres for swim tracking, and an exceptional one-year battery life adds to its general never-need-to-take-it-off-ness.

The best clip-on tracker:Fitbit Zip

For a basic clip-on tracker that doesnt have to be worn on your wrist, look to the Fitbit Zip. It couldnt be simpler to use. Its passive LED display is always visible, unlike those of the Fitbit One and the discontinued Withings Pulse Ox, which both require a tap or a button press to light up. And with a tap, you can scroll through your stats. The Zip also requires no charging, running instead on a replaceable watch battery that should be good for six months. It syncs wirelessly to the Fitbit app on your iPhone or Android handset, or to the Fitbit website on your computer.

This guide may have been updated. To see the current recommendations or availability updates, please go here.

Note from Wirecutter: When readers choose to buy our independently chosen editorial picks, we may earn affiliate commissions that support our work.

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The Best Fitness Trackers - forbes.com

Longevity Welder: Powerful and Lightweight – Pick Welder

Posted: October 13, 2018 at 5:42 pm

Established in 2001 in Hayward, California, Longevity Welder has settled on the motto, The Power to Last. This is despite having only existed for what amounts to being a teenager in manufacturing years. The upstart company does not have the age or the prowess of Lincoln or Miller. However, they are turning heads in the welding industry for offering exceptional power in a lightweight form factor.

Through innovation, customer satisfaction, and quality production, Longevity Global, Inc. is determined to gain the trust of its customers. They do it through the quality of their products, their active online presence, including the much heralded Learning Lab YouTube Channel.

And having amassed what amounts to a cult following, Longevity offers a ton of welding info online. This include videos, tips and tricks, a welding forum with lots of photos, stories, and ideas, and DIY templates. Plus, the company is as committed to welder safety as many of its competitor. They offer classes and workshops, instructor training, and more.

But Longevitys real bread and butter comes from aftermarket automotive welders, industrial welders, homeowners, small business owners, and auto shops. Plus, the company and its products was on the Orange County Choppers television show. Indeed they know a thing or two about being thrust into the limelight.

Longevity Welder: Committed to 100 Percent Customer Satisfaction

Longevity Global, Inc. has a diverse product lineup. This includes TIG and MIG welders, welding wire, consumable, safety gear, stick welders and plasma cutters. Their products are suitable for hobbyists, enthusiasts, and professionals alike. Furthermore, their welders and cutters offer powerful performance inside of small, portable form factors.

The company is so confident in the performance of their products. They offer the best warranty - a full 5-year parts and labor money-back guarantee on all welders and cutters. Plus, Longevity encourages all customers to try their products with no commitment for 30 days. At that time, you dont like it, return it with no questions asked.

That is what these new kids on the block consider as representative of 100 percent customer satisfaction. We have to see whether or notLongevity stand the test of time. However, many agree that they are off to a bang-up job already with their price point and their warranty.

Longevity MIG Weld 140 Review

Lets take a closer look at some of their products, starting with the MIG Weld 140. With an MSRP of under $350, this Longevity welder is small and easy to set up. The welder itself weighs a mere 40 pounds and plugs into a standard 110-volt outlet.

If you are not going into the fabrication business and you want a home shop tool, theMIG Weld 140is a great option. This is when you consider that it is $200 less than the Lincoln Power MIG 140. And it is $400 less than the Millermatic 140 Auto-Set.

Of course, we have to bring up the fact that they assemble some of Longevity products in China. On the other hand, they make Lincoln products in Ohio.While Longevity is not beyond reproach for shipping jobs overseas, it is a substantiated business model here in America. In fact, it is the same approach to building equipment that Apple uses.



Our Rating

$ $

While both Apple and Longevity engineer their products in California, they choose to have them assembled in other counties.But regardless where they build the machines, let's look at how the MIG Weld 140 measures up to some of its competitors.

The Lincoln Power MIG 140, the Millermatic 140 Auto-Set, and the Mig Weld 140 all come with extra tips. This also includes hoses, regulators, electrodes, and adapters. Also, the gear feels solid and made of a good quality material, at least according tothis review. Many of the other specs are also similar when comparing the three welders.

However, the Lincoln is the heaviest of the bunch at 60 pounds, and still cant match the 60 percent duty power cycle at 140 amps. Although both units use 110- or 220-volt power and PFC switch for a generator or secondary power hookup.

Longevity TIGWeld 200Sx Welders

Moving on to TIG welders, these machines are so named for their use of Tungsten Inert Gas. Also known as Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) units, TIG welders are reportedly more complicated. It is also time-consuming to set up than MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding.

This is because the feeder wire and the TIG torch both need to be manipulated manually during the welding process. While the process of TIG welding is more complicated, it also produces the potential for creating finer, more elegant welds with stronger bonds.

Longevity offers both TIG welders and MIG welders, and the Longevity TIGWeld 200Sx is an excellent example of a GTAW welder. Competitors in its class include the Miller Diversion 180 and the Lincoln SquareWave TIG 175 welders.

The consensus is that the Longevity TIGWeld is easier to set up than most. Also, as are most Longevity welders, and it is the least expensive. The Miller Diversion and the Lincoln SquareWave TIG 175 welders are far more expensive at around $1,600 each. Also, the weight differential is huge with the TIGWeld weighing in at around 40 pounds. The Miller taking welterweight at 50 pounds, and the Lincoln coming in with the heavyweight title at 185 pounds.

Other notable disparities include differences in duty cycles, which, as mentioned, was 200 amps at 60 percent for the TIGWeld. It is 150 amps at 20 percent for the Miller, and 150 amps at 25 percent for the Lincoln. The Lincoln Squarewave TIG 175 also only runs on single phase 220 power. On the other hand, the two welders can run on either 220 or 110 phase power.

In addition to powerful duty cycle, TIGWeld Longevity welders come with TIG torches made by Weldcraft. It isa standard name in the welding community known for high-quality and durable products. Also, all Longevity TIG welding machines feature stick welding capabilities at the flip of a switch.

Longevity Stick Welders, Lightweight Powerhouses

Stick welding, or Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), is one of the oldest types of welding known to man. The processis simpleand produces strong welds that can be used to fasten together thick chunks of metal.

Also, stick welding uses a single electrode and consumable rods to produce molten metal that acts as an adhesive as it cools. It is common to go through many rods in a single welding session. The weld produced are rarely ever attractive like TIG welds, but they are extremely strong.

These are the types of welds you would see on a construction project, used in bridge work, or for support girders in building structures. Think about heavy machinery and industrial metals when you think of stick welding.

A much cheaper form of welding than the other applications, stick welding can also be applied outside during inclement weather and to pipes and plumbing. However, SMAW is also messy and leaves debris and slags all over the project. The heat and power created during the process are great for joining chunks of iron. They are going to burn up thin materials like aluminum or stainless steel.

It can be extremely useful, though, to have a stick welder in the garage, andLongevitys StickWeld 140 is an excellent choice. With an MSRP of $279.99, the entire unit weighs only 13-15 pounds, and it runs off from the two most common power phases: 220 and 110 volts. With the same duty cycle as the TIGWeld, some reports say that if you run rod after rod for 10 minutes straight, the machine will overheat. But, by and far, most other accounts say this featherweight is a champ.

Plasma Cutting with Longevity Welder

So far, we have covered how to bind metal together. Now we are going to dive into tools that will cut it apart. There are many reasons for using a plasma cutter for slicing through metal. Two of those reasons are speed and efficiency. Compared to an oxy-acetylene gas cutting torch, plasma cutters are cleaner and faster. Plus, an operation is far less costly.

Longevity has offered professional plasma cutting equipment for almost 20 years. Their proprietary Blow Back Pilot Arc technology makes cutting expanded metals easier as well as enables easy arc strikes. Plus, the Longevity ForceCut promises to produce less slag and a stronger arc than its competitors. What is more, it even operates from any air compressor with a minimum of 70 PSI and 3.0 CFM.

Moreover, the entire unit weighs about 25 pounds, and it works off from 110v or 200v power at about 40 amps. Also, the Blow Back Pilot Arc allows you to safely fire the plasma gun in tight spots. Similarly, around sensitive equipment like computers, CNC tables in classrooms. In addition, to communications devices without worrying about causing damage to any of the equipment.

Longevity Welder: Wrapping Up

Sure, Longevity does not have the heritage that Lincoln does, but now that you have seen some of their products and how they stack up to the competitors, you can make an informed decision about buying your next welder or cutter.

Longevity keeps their welders and cutters lightweight and powerful, thanks to their new inverter technology and IGBT chipsets. The IGBT module stands for insulated-gate bipolar transistor, and it is a high-performance 7th generation chipset that is designed to be small and compact and provide for greater power output than in previous generations. The product is manufactured by Fuji Electric, and it is reported to be environmentally friendly and RoHS-compliant.

In addition to offering new technologies, like improved power through new inverters, Longevity offers the best warranty in the business - a 5-year parts and labor warranty on all of their products. Plus, you can try any of their welders or cutters for free for 30 days.

They might be fledglings in the esteemed blue-collar business of welding, but they are turning some head and impressing customers with their lightweight and powerful products. The fact that Longevity has created welding products that can keep up with (and sometimes surpass) the power produced by similar units made by manufacturer royalty is impressive enough.

Sure, Longevity Global Inc. assembles their products overseas, which is a business choice that is going to offend some buyers, but hopefully, as this blog suggests, that does not diminish the quality of their products. And in an era of iPhones and mobile devices and portable everything, these lightweight, mobile welders might just earn Longevity the staying power it so desperately craves.

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Longevity Welder: Powerful and Lightweight - Pick Welder

What does longevity mean? – Definitions.net

Posted: at 5:42 pm


The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography - however, the term "longevity" is sometimes meant to refer only to especially long lived members of a population, whereas "life expectancy" is always defined statistically as the average number of years remaining at a given age. For example, a population's life expectancy at birth is the same as the average age at death for all people born in the same year. Longevity is best thought of as a term for general audiences meaning 'typical length of life' and specific statistical definitions should be clarified when necessary.Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the brevity of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. Longevity has been a topic not only for the scientific community but also for writers of travel, science fiction, and utopian novels.There are many difficulties in authenticating the longest human life span ever by modern verification standards, owing to inaccurate or incomplete birth statistics. Fiction, legend, and folklore have proposed or claimed life spans in the past or future vastly longer than those verified by modern standards, and longevity narratives and unverified longevity claims frequently speak of their existence in the present.

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What does longevity mean? - Definitions.net

Home – Nutrition Medicine

Posted: October 12, 2018 at 6:41 am

Investigate, Inform, Improve

Investigate, inform and improve describes the approach we take in the care we provide to our patients. Unfortunately many family doctors dont have the time available to them to fully explore what is really going on with a patients health, especially in more complex or difficult cases. As a result, it makes it difficult to inform the patient about what is really going on and ultimately take action to improve their health.At Nutrition Medicine we understand that managing a patients health care management takes time. Its not uncommon for a first appointment to last up to four hours. We work best with people who have more complex health matters. Often our goal is to help the patient achieve their optimal health, depending on their personal circumstances and situation. If you require a thorough investigation and dedicated approach to your health management, please make an appointment with our receptionist.

I would like to take this opportunity to welcome you to my practice. Most of the patients that I see have persistent health issues that require a greater level of investigation than the service normally provided by their Family General Practitioner. For this reason, I would like to take this opportunity to share with you my own journey, philosophy and approach to patient care

Nutrition Medicine is a combined medical-nutritional approach based on an evolvingscientific framework that views physiological and biochemical disturbance as a prime causalfactor in the development and progression of disease. From this perspective, each personhas a unique pattern of metabolic activity and nutrient requirements that depends on theirgenetic inheritance and the impact of internal and external environmental factors on geneexpression and activity.

This Nutrition Medicine approach seeks to investigate the disturbances in body chemistry,caused by nutritional imbalance, resulting from improper diet, food sensitivity reactions,gastrointestinal dysfunction, inflammation and environmental toxic agents, which arecontributing to the patients illness. Once identified, nutritional balance can be restoredwith informed dietary and nutrient supplement protocols, integrated with ongoing medicaltreatment, to improve patient health outcomes.

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Home - Nutrition Medicine

Anti-Aging Dead Sea Products for Sale | aJudaica.com

Posted: at 6:41 am

Ever since Queen Cleopatra in ancient Egypt indulged in a daily donkey-milk bath in order to maintain her beauty, men and women have been searching to prolong the magic of youth. Today, the dream is becoming reality. Scientists working with doctors and biologists have produced incredible dermatological preparations that nourish, hydrate, strengthen and rejuvenate the skin, effectively delaying the ageing process.

Ajudaica is proud to present to its esteemed customers an entire battery of products that will help every woman make the most of her complexion. Even if your mirror does not yet reveal the lines and wrinkles that are the give-away signs of old age, these high performance preparations to protect your skin and maintain your youthful complexion.

In addition to age, environmental factors air conditioning, smoke, fumes and climate damage skin and encourage the aging process. Stress factors also impact the skin, aging it before its time. Our products have been carefully chosen from a range of prestigious cosmetic companies H&B, Ahava, Mineral Care and others. They all stand by the purity of their natural ingredients and the high standards of their advanced formulas.

Reduced production of collagen is one of the main causes of skin losing its elasticity. Scroll through our collection and you will find creams to be applied at night or in the morning that contain special formulas designed to correct this imbalance and improve the skins texture.

Nighttime is a golden opportunity for skin repair. Apply Mineral Cares Regenerating Night Cream or Ahavas Control Sleeping Cream before retiring. Whilst you enjoy your beauty sleep, your complexion will be nourished and moisturized with Dead Sea minerals, vitamins and fruit extracts. Wake up in the morning and your skin will feel different soft and supple.

In addition, you will find a selection of age-control, age-defying, anti-ageing, anti-wrinkle preparations. All contain high quality ingredients that have proven themselves over and over again. Dont forget that delicate eyes require our special eye creams to replenish the skin and feed it with valuable skin nutrients.

Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. Although aging is an inevitable process that should be worn as a badge of honor, we strive to keep the fresh blush of youth on our complexions. We are confident that aJudaicas skin preparations will balance the radiance and vitality of youth with the maturity and self confidence that flows with the passing years.

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Anti-Aging Dead Sea Products for Sale | aJudaica.com

Anti-Aging Therapy | Diet Doc

Posted: at 6:41 am

No one can stop aging, but you can fight back. Diet Docs anti-aging treatment programs incorporate state-of-the-art anti-aging supplements that help your body produce the hormones it needs to stay healthy, resilient, and youthful.

Throughout your life, your body will use hormones to help regulate and control key bodily functions. Hormones are natural chemicals that are responsible for controlling many of your bodys organs and systems. However, as you age, your body naturally changes, and your relationship with hormones may change as well. You might become less sensitive to a controlling hormone or you might produce less of an essential chemical.

As men grow older, their level of testosterone often decreases. For postmenopausal women, estradiol and other estrogen hormones may drop significantly. These changes tend to become noticeable as the typical signs of aging, such as sexual difficulties, loss of muscle, and an overall lack of energy.

While it may not be able to stop or reverse aging, one hormone has the potential to ease the signs of aging: Sermorelin.

Sermorelin encourages your body to create hormones that tend to naturally decline as you age. This anti-aging medication can help people lose weight, boost their energy, improve bone density, and much more.

Diet Doc provides guided anti-aging treatment that incorporates Sermorelin treatments. Your program is managed by a medical professional every step of the way to ensure your safety and success.

Read more about Sermorelin and its benefits here, or call our specialists at Diet Doc for a no-obligation consultation now. Youll get more information about the best anti-aging treatment options and find out how our program can help you turn back the clock.

Anti-Aging Therapy | Diet Doc

Welcome to Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut | Expect The …

Posted: at 6:41 am

Welcome to Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut | Expect The Very Best In Laser Hair Removal, Cosmetic Skin Rejuvenation & Esthetics

AAC offers the latest and most effective treatments in laser hair removal, cosmetic skin rejuvenation & skincare and esthetics!

Improve texture, tone, fine lines, wrinkles and scars as well as stimulate collagen and growth factor with this effective treatment. Also yields great results for hair restoration!

Gently exfoliates and eliminates surface layers of dead skin cells and unwanted vellus hair without the redness and swelling that can accompany medical-grade treatments.

Were known for our laser hair removal. No matter your skintype or ethnic background, we have a laser that can meet your needs! With our extensively trained nursing staff in our multiple locations, we have you covered. Learn more about laser hair removal at Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut!

Alexandrite Laser - Learn More Nd Yag Laser Learn More

As a client at Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut since 2004, I wanted to to tell you a little bit about my AAC Family. Anti-Aging Centers is Connecticuts premier provider for laser hair removal, cosmetic skin rejuvenation and esthetics. Since its founding by husband and wife team Leon and Barbara Prete almost twenty years ago, AAC has been committed to offering the latest services and top technology in hair removal, cosmetic skin rejuvenation, body sculpting and esthetics on the market today.

AAC began in 1998 as a fresh start after the miraculous recovery of the Pretes oldest son after a life-threatening illness. Its humble beginnings as Face & Body offered esthetic services and therapeutic massage, and though AAC has evolved in the scope and breadth of services it offers, it has remained committed to what Leon and Barbara have always felt was its founding principle and is something I can personally attest to: that family is the most important thing.

The AAC staff is extremely close and is committed to both each other and to making Anti-Aging Centers a success on all fronts. AAC is also extremely focused on creating a warm and positive atmosphere in which clients feel like family as well. It is not uncommon to see Leon or Barbara personally greeting clients in the waiting room, and AAC truly values every relationship they have developed with their clients over the years.

Upfront, fair pricing, discount packages, always-complimentary consultations, and personalized attention awaits you at Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut. Youll get a customized treatment plan to get the results you want. AAC is committed to quality services and developing a long-term relationship with you as part of their family.

So give them a call I know they cant wait to meet you! Chava LightClient & Part of the AAC Family

We are proud to announce that Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut (located in West Haven and Fairfield) continues to be chosen as one of the elite businesses in the Best of New Haven readers poll!

2016 Best of New Haven1st Place: Best Med Spa Anti-Aging Centers of CT1st Place: Best Laser Hair Removal Anti-Aging Centers of CT2nd Place: Best Place for a Facial Anti-Aging Centers of CT

2015 Best of New Haven1st Place: Best Med Spa Anti-Aging Centers of CT2nd Place: Best Spa Anti-Aging Centers of CT

We want to thank all our clients over the years for your loyal support of votes of confidence, and we look forward to servicing you in the future!

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Welcome to Anti-Aging Centers of Connecticut | Expect The ...

13 Best Anti-Aging Skin Care Products for 2018 – totalbeauty.com

Posted: at 6:41 am

Once upon a time, in a land far, far away, a fountain of youth overflowed abundantly -- bubbling out refreshing sips of anti-aging magic. One gulp or quick splash filled in lines and wrinkles, lifted saggy bits, de-puffed eyes, evened out skin tones and textures and reversed sun damage.

Then all of the sudden, like some cruel joke, reality set in and no such magical fountain existed. This forced women everywhere to search for the next best thing.

Cut to today, when there is a surplus of anti-aging skin care products like creams, serums, gels and powders that all claim to be this fountain of youth. Some work their anti-aging magic through ingredients that have a ton of scientific research and analysis on how skin ages to back them up and some are pure hype -- smoke and mirrors with a price tag exceeding $300.

But luckily, women like you have tried loads of these anti-aging skin care products and have separated the winners from the losers. Our readers named these anti-aging products the best of the best when it comes to turning back the clock.

Image via Imaxtree

SEE NEXT PAGE: Best Anti-Aging Product No. 11: Elemis Pro-Collagen Marine Cream, $128

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13 Best Anti-Aging Skin Care Products for 2018 - totalbeauty.com

Anti Aging Market Analysis, Size, Trends, Value. Research …

Posted: at 6:41 am

Anti Aging Market

In 2017, the global anti-aging market was estimated at USD 324.6 billion and is expected to reach a value of USD 429.0 billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 5.73% during 2018-2023 (the forecast period). As of 2017, North America, followed by Europe and Asia-Pacific, held up to 60% of the market share.

In 2016, the anti-wrinkle products segment accounted for the largest market share of about 43% that is expected to reach 70% by 2022. The natural products segment is expected to witness the highest growth rate, due to the side effects associated with cosmetics and chemical-based products. The demand for different types of anti-aging products and services has been growing since the past years.

Growing aging population worldwide, increasing number of medical tourism for cosmetic procedures, rising consumer demand for anti-aging products, and the strict regulations are the other factors driving the market. Moreover, these factors have led to the introduction of safe and efficient anti-aging products and services in the market.

With the rising beauty consciousness among people, there is a potential market for anti-aging devices and aesthetic plastic surgeries. Aesthetic is a new trend, worldwide, which has covered a major chunk of the market. According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, in 2014, Americans spent around USD 12 million on aesthetics and nearly 50,000 cosmetic procedures were performed in the United Kingdom, last year.However, factors, like stringent regulatory environment etc., are making consumers be skeptic regarding the global anti-aging market, thus, in turn, this factor is restraining the market growth.

Japan is becoming one of the established markets for the anti-aging products & services, because of the modern lifestyles of Japanese populace. Countries, like the United States, and regions, like Europe and Australia, are also a few leading markets, globally. The Japanese anti-aging market is evolving because of the new product introductions and services being provided. Japan has been the worlds longest life expectancy for women for more than two decades.

The market is analyzedunder various other regions as well namely, North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa.

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Anti Aging Market Analysis, Size, Trends, Value. Research ...

Departments | Newington, CT

Posted: October 10, 2018 at 10:40 pm

The Building Department performs supervisory and administrative duties in planning and coordinating the operation of the building inspections, which includes complex technical duties in enforcing construction codes to ensure public safety in accordance with town policies, ordinances, charter and/or Connecticut General Statutes.

The Department of Economic Development provides assistance in the development of short and long term economic and communitydevelopment plans, as well as the gathering of information and preparation of studies, reports, and recommendations to achieve such goals. This will involve the preparation and maintenance of information on utilities, taxes, zoning, transportation, community services, financing tools, and incentives, in order to respond to requests for information for economic development purposes,and the coordination with other departments and agencies as needed.

The Engineering Department provides engineering services for the Town of Newington such as surveying, project planning, cost estimating, plan reviews, design, construction management, pavement inventory, storm drainage, sidewalks and street lighting.

Facilities Management has the responsibility of maintaining and operating many town facilities, including but not limited to: Town Hall, Police Department, Senior and Disabled Center, Library, Mortensen Community Center as well as other facilities located off campus (Fire Departments, Highway Department, Parks and Grounds Annex, to name but a few).

The Finance Department is responsible for maximizing the return on financial assets by establishing financial policies, procedures, controls and reporting systems. In addition, the department handles all accounts payable, accounts receivable and payroll operations. The department ensures legal and regulatory compliance for all accounting and financial reporting in accordance with town policies, ordinances, charter and/or Connecticut General Statutes.

The Fire Chief is responsible to develop all policies and procedures concerning firefighting in accordance with town policies, ordinances, Connecticut General Statutes, Federal laws and/or regulations. The fire chief is responsible for directing all volunteer fire fighters and ensuring that fire fighters have adequate training. The fire chief is responsible for ensuring that firefighting equipment is in good working order.

The Fire Marshals Office is responsible for the enforcement of many of the sections found in Chapter 541 of the Connecticut General Statutes, as well as numerous codes promulgated under the provision of these statutes. The department also provides professional life safety protection and reduce harm associated with fires, explosions and mechanical failures to the residents and business of the Town of Newington through inspection, prevention, education and investigation.

The Highway/Sanitation Department is responsible for taking care of and/or supervising the construction, maintenance, alterations and repairs of approximately 104 miles of town roads, rights of way and approximately 60 miles of sidewalks. In addition, the department is responsible for snow removal, leaf collection, street sweeping, fleet maintenance, refuse collection, recycling, town traffic signals, signage, road striping and operating the town transfer station.

The Human Services Department provide client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families. Where possible, they may assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services.

Information Technology provides computing technology strategies, as well as effective tools and services to anticipate and meet the business and information needs of the Town of Newington.Information Technology is tasked with developing a reliable and efficient technical infrastructure to support critical town operations and is committed to providing residents, businesses and visitors with efficient and excellent service and information access.

The Lucy Robbins Welles Library offers a superb collection of over 179,000 items, a beautiful facility, serves as a community meeting place, cultural center and an invaluable information resource. The library offers programs for adults, teens and children.

The Parks and Recreation Department promotes, coordinates and directs all phases of recreational activity on behalf of the town to include park operations and maintenance.

The Police Department strives to enhance the quality of life in the Town of Newington by working cooperatively with the public to prevent crime, enforce the laws, preserve the peace, and provide a safe environment for it's residents, businesses and visitors.

The Town of Newington along with the communities of Berlin, Rocky Hill and Wethersfield receive public health services through the Central Connecticut Health District (CCHD). The Central Connecticut Health District is committed to improving the quality of life in the communities they serve through the prevention of disease and injury, fostering of a healthy environment and promotion of the health.

The Registrar of Voters manages all election processing for the town by ensuring the accuracy of voter registry list, and the preparedness of the election officials and voting tabulators, in accordance with Connecticut Statutes, per the Secretary of the State. Duties also include assisting individuals with voter registration services, absentee ballots and referendums.

The Revenue Collectors office primary objectives are to secure the maximum collection of revenues due the town, maintain accurate collection records, ensure proper controls and safeguard the revenue collected. The department operates as a division under the Department of Finance.

The Senior and Disabled Center promotes health, well being and safety for individuals with disabilities, seniors and vulnerable adults by facilitating access to quality services and supports that foster independence, personal choice and dignity.

The Assessors Office has many administrative and statutory duties; however, the primary duty and responsibility is to assess all real property within the Town of Newington in accordance with town policies, ordinances, charter and/or Connecticut General Statutes. The department operates as a division under the Department of Finance.

The office of the Town Clerk operates in accordance with the Connecticut General Statutes, Town Charter and Code of Ordinances. The office interacts with State departments and agencies, records documents, maintains and preserves permanent and historical records such as Births, Death, Marriage and Dog Licenses, and responds to inquiries from the public. The office assumes an official role in the election process, issues various licenses and permits, updates the Code of Ordinances, and acts as Registrar of Vital Statistics

The Town Managers Office is responsible for administering the policies as established by the Town Council. The Manager serves as the chief executive officer and head of the administrative branch of the Town Government. In addition to the day-to-day administrative responsibilities, the Manager's office is also responsible for compiling and submitting the Town Managers Budget to the Council.

The Town Planner's Office provides leadership and technical assistance in all facets of community planning, zoning and development issues. They assist the Town Plan and Zoning commission in reviewing development projects that enhance the quality of living and working in Newington, promote economic growth and the conservation of the communitys natural resources and update the Towns Master Plan.

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Departments | Newington, CT

Illinois Healthcare Portal Home

Posted: at 7:43 am

Welcome to the State of Illinois Health and Wellness one-stop source for your healthcare needs. Here, parents can sign up their children for the states affordable health insurance programs, seniors can sign up for one of our affordable prescription drug programs, women can find information on free breast and cervical cancer screenings, and much more.You can also see what health coverage options may be available to you under the Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare). Visit Get Covered Illinois to get started.

Our mission is to ensure that in Illinois we have a system of quality, efficient and affordable healthcare. We are working to make Illinois a leader in the implementation of national healthcare reform.Some of the important new reforms will give people access to health insurance. New health coverage options for uninsured Illinoisans begin January 1, 2014, but you can sign up today.Visit Get Covered Illinois for information and to see what option is right for you.

Other healthcare reforms are intended to make ours a more efficient and cost-effective healthcare system. That means making sure there are enough doctors offices or clinics where people can get primary healthcare services rather than depending on emergency rooms; and emphasizing prevention and wellness to keep people healthy, not just paying bills after people get sick; and promoting a coordinated system of care to replace our fragmented healthcare services.

The Department of Healthcare and Family Services will join our sister state agencies, healthcare providers, advocates and the public to make healthcare improvements that benefit all of us. We will keep you informed of our actions.

To get started, choose a healthcare topic from the Health Program Finder below:

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Illinois Healthcare Portal Home

Memphis – Tennessee State Government – TN.gov

Posted: October 9, 2018 at 5:47 am

Josh Carter, Chief Executive Officer951 Court AveMemphis, TN 38013901-577-1800


Memphis Mental Health Institute (MMHI) is a psychiatric hospital that has been serving the Memphis community since 1962. Hospitalizations are on a voluntary or involuntary basis, or patients can also be referred by the court system for pre-trail evaluations. The hospital offers 2 short-term care units for a total of 55 beds.

The mission of Memphis Mental Health Institute is to provide a therapeutic environment centered on compassion and quality care for each individual we serve.

It is the vision of MMHI to be recognized for providing person-centered psychiatric care in a therapeutic, supportive, and compassionate environment.


Memphis Mental Health Institute assists patients who are not typically served by the private service sector and have no other inpatient treatment resources available to them. Most patients have a severe and persistent mental illness and are hospitalized on an emergency, involuntary basis. The hospital is an authorized provider under TennCare.


Memphis Mental Health Institute patient care teams, which consist of a psychiatrist, a social worker, nursing staff, a recreational therapist, and a treatment team coordinator, help individuals receive personalized care based on their specific needs. The staff works together with patients to help facilitate the individuals transition back to the community. Patients are provided individualized care centered on compassion and quality. MMHI also offers:

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Memphis - Tennessee State Government - TN.gov

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